Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Upper-Division Courses

M100. Earth and Its Environment. (4) (Same as Environment M111.) Lecture, three hours. Overview of Earth as system of distinct, yet intimately related, physical and biological elements. Origins and characteristics of atmosphere, oceans, and land masses. Survey of history of Earth and of life on Earth, particularly in relation to evolution of physical world. Consideration of possibility of technological solutions to global environmental problems using knowledge gained during course. Letter grading.

101. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Dynamics and Thermodynamics. (5) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Mathematics 3B or 31B, Physics 1B or 6B. Recommended: course 3. Introduction to atmospheric environment, with emphasis on thermodynamics, dynamics, and structure of atmosphere. Laws of thermodynamics; work, heat, and cyclic processes. Adiabatic processes, moisture, and atmospheric stability. Hydrostatic balance. Fundamental equations of motion, with applications to atmospheric flow. Circulation and vorticity. Letter grading.

102. Climate Change and Climate Modeling. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisites: Mathematics 3C or 32A, Physics 1B or 6C, with grades of C or better. Global environmental issues in climate change due to human activities or natural climate variations. Quantitative introduction to new science of climate modeling to understand and predict these changes. Physical processes in climate system. Atmospheric and oceanic circulation. El niño and year-to-year climate prediction. Greenhouse effect and global warming. P/NP or letter grading.

103. Physical Oceanography. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: Mathematics 3B or 31B. Introductory course for physical sciences, life sciences, or engineering majors interested in environmental issues. Observations of temperature, salinity, density, and currents. Methods. Wind-driven and geostrophic currents. California Current and Gulf Stream. Internal waves. Surface waves and tides. Air/sea interactions. Coastal upwelling. Biological/physical interactions. El niño. Role of ocean in climate and global change. Santa Monica Bay field trip. Letter grading.

104. Fundamentals of Air and Water Pollution. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: Chemistry 14B or 20B. Chemistry and physics of air and water pollution, including photochemistry, acid rain, air pollution meteorology and dispersion, groundwater and surface water pollution, chemical cycling, air/water interface, global atmospheric change. Letter grading.

M105. Introduction to Chemical Oceanography. (4) (Same as Ecology and Evolutionary Biology M139.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introductory course for physical sciences, life sciences, and engineering majors interested in oceanic environment. Chemical composition of oceans and nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes governing this composition in past and present. Cycles of major and minor oceanic constituents, with focus on those that are most important for life (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and oxygen). Investigation of primary production, export production, remineralization, diagenesis, air-sea gas exchange processes. Letter grading.

M106. Applied Climatology: Principles of Climate Impact on Natural Environment. (4) (Same as Geography M106.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Designed for juniors/seniors. Exploration of knowledge and tools to solve complex problems in contemporary applied climatology, including current practices, influence of climate on environment, and human influence on changing climates. P/NP or letter grading.

107. Biological Oceanography. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introductory course for physical sciences, life sciences, and engineering majors interested in oceanic environment. Review of how biological processes are intrinsically tied to physical and chemical processes in oceans. Examination of processes that control distribution, abundance, and production of marine organisms and their spatial and temporal variability. Letter grading.

C110. Advanced Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology. (6) Laboratory, six hours. Requisite: course 101. Weather map analysis, thermodynamic diagrams, satellite interpretation, severe weather forecasting, isentropic analysis, frontogenesis, quasi-geostrophic omega equation. Concurrently scheduled with course C227. P/NP or letter grading.

112. Climate Change Assessment. (4) Lecture, three hours. Preparation: one upper-division course in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences or Environmental Science. Requisite: Mathematics 3B or 31B. Projections of future anthropogenic climate change and understanding of natural climate variability depend on international climate model intercomparison projects, on large observing systems coordinating space and ground observations, and on multi-scientist climate assessments. Lectures, readings and projects address current issues in the scientific literature on assessment of climate change for students with prior background in the atmospheric, oceanic and environmental sciences. P/NP or letter grading.

CM114. Aquatic Geomicrobiology. (4) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences CM114.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Recommended requisite: course M105 or Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences C107. Fundamental geomicrobiological metabolisms and biogeochemical reactions occurring in aquatic systems, how they impact their environment, and how they interact in complex ecosystems such as methane seeps, hydrothermal vents, coral reefs, microbial mats, or deep biosphere. Metabolisms include different photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and chemoautotrophic pathways. Interpretation of geochemical profiles and understanding of how microorganisms govern mineralization and element cycling in aquatic systems. Concurrently scheduled with course CM237. P/NP or letter grading.

C115. Mesometeorology. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 101. Observations of phenomena with length scales ranging from 20 km to 2,000 km. Topics include polar lows, airmass thunderstorms, multicell storms, supercell tornadoes, gust fronts, downbursts, microbursts, and dry line. Discussions on design of field project. Concurrently scheduled with course C228. P/NP or letter grading.

M120. Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. (4) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M140.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Corequisite: Physics 131. Fluid statics and thermodynamics. Kinematics. Conservation laws and equations of fluid motion. Circulation theorems and vorticity dynamics. Rotating frame. Irrotational flow. Letter grading.

130. California’s Ocean. (4) Lecture, four hours. Recommended requisite: course 103 or M105. Circulation, biogeochemistry, biota, water quality, measurement techniques, computational modeling, conservation, and management for California’s coastal ocean, including coastal measurement cruise and term project (paper and presentation). Letter grading.

135. Ocean Change in the Anthropocene. (4) Lecture, 90 minutes; laboratory, 90 minutes. Requisites: courses 103, 105. Review of main impacts of human activities on ocean, from warming and acidification to overfishing, pollution, and exploitation of marine resources. Discussion of concepts of governance and sustainability. Introduction to global ocean datasets and IPCC-class model output. Student-led presentation to review significant papers from scientific literature. Letter grading.

141. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Chemistry 14B or 20B, Mathematics 3A or 31A, Physics 1B or 6B. Physical and chemical processes that determine composition of atmosphere and its implications for climate, ecosystems, and human welfare. Origin of atmosphere. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, trace metal cycles. Climate and greenhouse effect. Atmospheric transport and turbulence. Stratospheric ozone. Oxidizing power of atmosphere. Regional air pollution: aerosols, smog, mercury, and acid rain. Letter grading.

C144. Atmospheric Boundary Layer. (4) Lecture, three hours. Enforced requisite: course 101 with grade of B+ or better. Atmospheric boundary layer is lowest portion of atmosphere, representing interface between Earth’s surface and atmosphere, is strongly affected by turbulence, and plays important role in exchange of heat, momentum, trace gases, and aerosols between Earth’s surface and free troposphere. Investigation of properties of atmospheric boundary layer and processes that determine them. Concurrently scheduled with course C222. P/NP or letter grading.

145. Atmospheric Physics: Radiation, Clouds, and Aerosols. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Physics 1A, 1B, and 1C, or 6A, 6B, and 6C. Theory and application of atmospheric radiation, aerosol, and cloud processes. Topics include radiative transport, cloud and rain formation, aerosol properties, impact of aerosol and clouds on climate. Letter grading.

150. Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Laboratory. (5) Lecture, one hour; laboratory, six hours. Requisites: Mathematics 3B or 31B, Physics 1B and 1C (or 6B and 6C). Many of today’s environmental problems, such as stratospheric ozone hole, current rise of greenhouse gas concentrations, and various severe weather phenomena, were first discovered and investigated using accurate observational techniques. Direct experimental observations remain crucial component in today’s efforts to better understand weather, climate, and pollution of atmosphere and ocean. Introduction to experimental/observational approach in atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Students work in small groups to gain hands-on experience in setup, performance, analysis, and reporting of different experiments. Introduction to underlying principles of these experimental methods and basic data analysis tools. P/NP or letter grading.

155. Introduction to Ecosystem-Atmosphere Interactions. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Exchanges of energy, moisture, atmospheric trace gases, and momentum between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. Interactions and feedbacks between physical environment and physiological status of plants and soils. Topics include canopy structure and function, leaf energy balance, and carbon and water fluxes between plants, soils, and atmosphere. Letter grading.

C160. Remote Sensing of Atmosphere and Oceans. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: Physics 1C or 6B. Theory and techniques of remote sensing; atmospheric spectroscopy, scattering, and polarization; passive and active techniques; relevant satellite systems; inversion methods; remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, temperature, precipitation, and trace constituents; remote sensing of oceans and biosphere. Concurrently scheduled with course C240B. P/NP or letter grading.

C170. Introduction to Solar System Plasmas. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Mathematics 33A, Physics 1C. Introduction to basic plasma physical processes occurring in sun, solar wind, magnetospheres, and ionospheres of planets, using simple fluid (magnetohydrodynamic) models as well as individual particle (radiation belt dynamics) approach. Solar-planetary coupling processes, geomagnetic phenomena, aurora. Concurrently scheduled with course C205A. Letter grading.

180. Numerical Methods in Atmospheric Sciences. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one course in C or Fortran programming. Requisite: Mathematics 33B. Survey of numerical methods employed in atmospheric and related sciences: theory, application, and programming. Letter grading.

C182. Data Analysis in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. (4) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, one hour. Enforced requisite: one course from 101 through M105. Recommended: one probability course. Overview of data analytic methods in common use in atmospheric and oceanic research. Linear models, principal component analysis (empirical orthogonal function), time-series analysis, and clustering methods. Model validation and evaluation, significance tests, error analysis, bias detection. Emphasis on practical applications, with specific examples from atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Concurrently scheduled with course C260. P/NP or letter grading.

186. Operational Meteorology. (2) Laboratory, six hours. Requisite: course C110. Limited to junior/senior Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Environmental Sciences majors. Daily contact with weather data and forecasting, satellite and radar data. Introduction to weather forecasting for aviation, air pollution, marine weather, fire weather, and public use. Includes daily weather map discussions and visits to observing, radiosonde, and radar installations. Letter grading.

189. Advanced Honors Seminars. (1) Seminar, three hours. Limited to 20 students. Designed as adjunct to undergraduate lecture course. Exploration of topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities and led by lecture course instructor. May be applied toward honors credit for eligible students. Honors content noted on transcript. P/NP or letter grading.

189HC. Honors Contracts. (1) Tutorial, three hours. Limited to students in College Honors Program. Designed as adjunct to upper-division lecture course. Individual study with lecture course instructor to explore topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities. May be repeated for maximum of 4 units. Individual honors contract required. Honors content noted on transcript. Letter grading.

190. Research Colloquia in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. (2) Seminar, two hours. Preparation: basic knowledge of meteorology (equivalent to course 3) and lower-division calculus, chemistry, and physics; course 101 strongly recommended. Limited to departmental majors and minors. Survey of current research projects presented by faculty members and research staff in seminar and/or panel discussion format. May be repeated for credit. P/NP grading.

197. Individual Studies in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. (2 to 4) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to juniors/seniors. Individual intensive study, with scheduled meetings to be arranged between faculty member and student. Assigned reading and tangible evidence of mastery of subject matter required. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. P/NP or letter grading.

199. Directed Research in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. (2 to 4) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to juniors/seniors and required for Mathematics/Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences majors. Supervised individual research or investigation under guidance of faculty mentor. Culminating paper or project required. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. P/NP or letter grading.