Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Graduate Courses

200A. Introduction to Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Recommended requisite: Physics 131. Thermodynamics of two component (moist/salty) fluids. Thermodynamic diagrams and stability. Saturation and moist processes. Hydrostatics. Equations of fluid motion in rotating coordinate systems. Scales of motion and dominant balances: geostrophic, gradient, and thermal wind. Circulation and vorticity. Boundary layers and turbulence. Elementary waves. S/U or letter grading.

200B. Introduction to Dynamics of Earth System. (4) Lecture, three hours. Overview of general circulation of atmosphere and ocean; global energy balances; coupled circulations (such as el niño); mesoscale, synoptic, and tropical phenomena; boundary layers, clouds, and convection; biogeochemical cycles; climate variability and change. S/U or letter grading.

201A. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics I. (4) Lecture, three hours. Fundamental equations of motion. Atmospheric and oceanic approximations. Rotating reference frame. Density stratification. Geostrophic adjustment and balance. Potential vorticity conservation. Vortex dynamics. Acoustic, gravity, inertial, Rossby, and Kelvin waves. Barotropic and baroclinic instability. Ekman boundary layers. Oceanic wind gyres: Sverdrup balance and western boundary currents. Letter grading.

201B. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics II. (4) Lecture, three hours. Enforced requisite: course 201A. Anelastic approximation. Small-scale gravity waves in atmosphere. Critical levels. Kelvin/Helmholtz instability. Quasi-static oscillations of planetary atmosphere. Equatorial Kelvin and mixed Rossby-gravity (Yanai) waves. Baroclinic and barotropic instabilities in continuously stratified system. General circulation of atmosphere. Jet streams, eddies, storm tracks. Propagation of planetary waves. Wave-mean flow interactions. Noninteraction theorems. Letter grading.

201C. Atmospheric and Oceanic Turbulence. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 200A. Recommended: course 201A. Turbulent flows that occur on relatively small scales (<~10 km) in both atmosphere and ocean. Classical homogeneous, shear, convective, and boundary-layer turbulence and its geophysical modification due to stratification, Earth’s rotation, and water phase changes. S/U or letter grading.

202. Introduction to Ocean Science. (4) Lecture, three hours. Fundamentals of ocean physics, chemistry, and biology. Equations of motion, dynamical balances, conservation laws. Ocean circulation and material transport from small-scale eddies and waves to global circulation of thermocline and deep ocean; influences on ecosystem processes, biogeographic provinces, and chemical cycles; implications for global heat transport, sea ice, and climate. S/U or letter grading.

M203A. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry. (4) (Same as Civil Engineering M262A.) Lecture, three hours. Requisite for undergraduates: Chemistry 20B. Principles of chemical kinetics, thermochemistry, spectroscopy, and photochemistry; chemical composition and history of Earth’s atmosphere; biogeochemical cycles of key atmospheric constituents; basic photochemistry of troposphere and stratosphere, upper atmosphere chemical processes; air pollution; chemistry and climate. S/U or letter grading.

203B. Introduction to Atmospheric Physics. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Principles of radiative transfer; absorption, emission, and scattering of solar and infrared radiation; radiation budget consideration; aerosols in atmosphere; principles of water droplet and ice crystal formation; diffusion and accretion; precipitation processes; radiative forcings of clouds/aerosols and climate feedback. S/U or letter grading.

C205A. Introduction to Solar System Plasmas. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introduction to basic plasma physical processes occurring in sun, solar wind, magnetospheres, and ionospheres of planets, using simple fluid (magnetohydrodynamic) models as well as individual particle (radiation belt dynamics) approach. Solar-planetary coupling processes, geomagnetic phenomena, aurora. Concurrently scheduled with course C170. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

205B. Introduction to Solar-Terrestrial Physics. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Solar, interplanetary, magnetospheric, ionospheric, auroral, geomagnetic phenomenological and theoretical background for studies in space physics. Contextual understanding and literacy in space physics terminology provided. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

205C. Planetary Upper Atmospheres. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Aeronomy of upper atmospheres of Earth and other planets and some of their satellites — thermospheric structure and morphology, circulations, and disturbances; ionospheres as collisional and magnetized (unmagnetized) plasmas: currents, drifts, and instabilities. Examples of upper atmospheric interaction with lower atmosphere and magnetosphere. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

M206. Introduction to Biophysical Modeling of Land Surface Processes and Land/Atmosphere Interactions. (4) (Same as Geography M206.) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, one hour; reading period, one hour. Designed for graduate students. Presentation of introductory knowledge for graduate students to understand nature, principles, and scope of biophysical modeling of land surface processes, including ideal canopy model, radiation, heat and CO 2 fluxes transfer, and satellite data application. Laboratory sessions included. S/U or letter grading.

209. Climate Change Assessment. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Corequisites: graduate atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, or climate science courses. Lectures, readings, and projects on current issues in projections of future anthropogenic climate change; design and use of resources from Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects (CMIPs), topics from large multiscientist climate assessments, including Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Issues in modeling current climate, including natural climate variability, paleoclimate, and global change under standardized scenarios for future anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols. May be repeated for credit. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology

M210. Planetary Atmospheres and Climates. (4) (Formerly numbered 210.) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M229.) Lecture, three hours. Enforced requisite: Physics 1C. Planetary atmospheric structure and composition, radiative transfer, and climate dynamics. Topics include origin and evolution of atmospheres, paleoclimate of Earth and Mars, atmospheric thermodynamics, plane-parallel radiative transfer, climate dynamics, climate forcings/feedbacks, bifurcation, and climate hysteresis. S/U or letter grading.

211. Planetary Wave Dynamics and Teleconnections in Atmosphere/Ocean. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 201B. Dynamics of stationary and low-frequency waves in Earth’s atmosphere and ocean with applications to remote impacts of climate variability. Propagation of barotropic and baroclinic Rossby waves in spatially varying flow. Interactions with storm tracks and mean flow. Teleconnection patterns. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

212A. Numerical Methods in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite or corequisite: course 201A. Basic numerical methods for initial-boundary value problems in fluid dynamics, with emphasis on applications to atmospheric and oceanographic problems. Finite-difference methods and truncation error. Linear and nonlinear computational instability. Computational modes and computational boundary conditions. Nonlinear shallow-water equation model. Spectral methods. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

212B. Numerical Modeling of Atmosphere I. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisites: courses 201B, 212A. Dynamics of numerical weather prediction and climate models and their computational design. Basic governing equations. Vertical and horizontal coordinates. Quasi-geostrophic and balanced models. Shallow-water equation model. Three-dimensional primitive equation models. Limited-area modeling. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

212C. Numerical Modeling of Atmosphere II. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 201C. Formulation of physical processes in numerical weather prediction and climate models. Planetary boundary layer processes. Turbulence closure models. Condensation processes. Parameterization of moist-convective processes. Cloudiness parameterization. Parameterization of gravity wave drag. S/U grading.

214. Theoretical Climatic Dynamics. (4) Lecture, three hours. Radiative transfer and energy-balance models (EBMs). Multiple equilibrium climates and their stability. Coupled EBMs of atmosphere and oceans. Climatic history of our planet. Continuum mechanics of ice sheets and mantle. Oscillatory models of Quaternary glaciation cycles. Transitions from equilibrium to periodic and aperiodic climate behavior. Climatic predictability. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

215. Ocean Circulation. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisites: courses 200A, 201A. Phenomena, theory, and modeling of ocean circulations with global to regional scope. Circulation types include thermohaline and wind-driven currents. Examination of relationships between ocean circulations and smaller-scale motions, atmospheric climate, and biogeochemical transport. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

216A. Tropical Motions with Moist Processes. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 201C. Cumulus convection and the boundary layer in tropics. Cloud clusters and mesoscale convection systems. Interaction of cumulus convection with large-scale environment. Tropical cyclones. Monsoon meteorology. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

216B. Wave Motions in Tropical Atmosphere. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 201B. Basic theory of equatorially trapped waves. Observations of tropical wave disturbances. Generation mechanisms of tropical waves. Tropical 30-50 day oscillation. Quasi-biennial and semiannual oscillations. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

217. Mesoclimates. (4) Lecture, three hours. Global distribution of climate regimes with spatial scales smaller than 100 km. Mechanisms maintaining mesoclimates against much larger-scale atmospheric general circulation and isolation gradients. Mesoclimate-ecosystem interaction. S/U or letter grading.

218. Dynamics of Atmosphere/Ocean System. (4) Lecture, three hours. Transfer of properties between atmosphere and ocean; wind-driven ocean currents; coastal upwelling. Air/sea interactions. Effects of oceans on climate. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

219. Statistical Analysis and Visual Explanation of Large Climate Data. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introduction to statistical methods to analyze climate data and principles of visual presentation of quantitative information. Review of basic statistical concepts. Principles of visual display of quantitative information. Parametric and non-parametric tests for auto-correlated and non-stationary data, multiplicity, and field significance. Spatial-tempo pattern analyses including cross-spectral analysis, spatio-temporary spectral analysis, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and extension of EOFs (complex EOF, multivariate EOF, extended EOF). Spatial-temporal canonical correlation analysis (CCA), time-lagged CCA, maximum correlation analysis (or singular value decomposition). Self-organizing map. S/U or letter grading.

C222. Atmospheric Boundary Layer. (4) Lecture, three hours. Atmospheric boundary layer is lowest portion of atmosphere, representing interface between Earth’s surface and atmosphere, is strongly affected by turbulence, and plays important role in exchange of heat, momentum, trace gases, and aerosols between Earth’s surface and free troposphere. Investigation of properties of atmospheric boundary layer and processes that determine them. Concurrently scheduled with course C144. S/U or letter grading.

224A. Atmospheric Turbulence. (4) Lecture, three hours. Kinematics of homogeneous and shear flow turbulence. Surface and planetary boundary layers, including heat transfer and turbulent convection. Survey of field and laboratory observations and their interpretation by theory. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

M224B. Atmospheric Diffusion and Air Pollution. (4) (Same as Civil Engineering M262B.) Lecture, three hours. Nature and sources of atmospheric pollution; diffusion from point, line, and area sources; pollution dispersion in urban complexes; meteorological factors and air pollution potential; meteorological aspects of air pollution. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

C227. Advanced Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology. (6) Laboratory, six hours. Requisite: course 101. Weather map analysis, thermodynamic diagrams, satellite interpretation, severe weather forecasting, isentropic analysis, frontogenesis, quasi-geostrophic omega equation. Concurrently scheduled with course C110. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

C228. Mesometeorology. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 101. Observations of phenomena with length scales ranging from 20 km to 2,000 km. Topics include polar lows, airmass thunderstorms, multicell storms, supercell tornadoes, gust fronts, downbursts, microbursts, and dry line. Discussions on design of field project. Concurrently scheduled with course C115. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

229. Mesoscale Modeling. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisites: courses 201C, C228. Numerical and analytical modeling of convective and mesoscale motions, from shallow heat sources to large complex systems. Model frameworks, assumptions, parameterizations, and solution techniques. Role of modeling efforts in understanding dynamic structure and behavior of systems. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry

230A. Atmospheric Chemistry I. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course M203A. Photochemistry of troposphere; physical chemistry of surfaces and solutions; precipitation chemistry and acid rain; atmospheric organic chemistry; regional and global biogeochemical cycles; current issues in global change. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

230B. Atmospheric Chemistry II. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course M203A. Photochemistry of stratosphere and mesosphere; basic ionospheric processes; stratospheric pollution and ozone layer; physical chemistry of upper atmosphere clouds and aerosols; comparative photochemistry of planetary atmospheres; observational techniques and results. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

232. Chemical Transport Modeling. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisites: courses M203A, 230A, 230B. Equations of tracer transport and chemical kinetics modeling in three dimensions; numerical techniques; coupled simulations of gas-phase and aerosol microphysics and chemistry; computational versus observational results; current problems in tracer modeling. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

M235. Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics and Climate. (4) (Same as Ecology and Evolutionary Biology M238.) Lecture, three hours. Interaction of ocean biogeochemical cycles with physical climate system. Biogeochemical processes controlling carbon dioxide and oxygen in oceans and atmosphere over time-scales from few million years to several years. Anthropogenic perturbation of global carbon cycle and climate. Response of ocean ecosystems to past and future global changes. Use of isotopes to study ocean biogeochemical cycles and climate. Interactions between biogeochemical cycles on land and in ocean. S/U or letter grading.

236. Terrestrial Biogeochemical Dynamics and Climate. (4) Lecture, three hours. Corequisites: graduate atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, and climate science courses. Biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial biosphere. Carbon/water/energy/nutrient dynamics. Observational techniques and results. Interactions of terrestrial biogeochemical cycles with climate system on timescales of seconds to centuries. Use of isotopes to study land biogeochemical cycles and climate. Anthropogenic perturbations of global terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks. Response of land ecosystems to past and future global changes. S/U or letter grading.

CM237. Aquatic Geomicrobiology. (4) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences CM214.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Recommended requisite: course M105 or Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences C107. Fundamental geomicrobiological metabolisms and biogeochemical reactions occurring in aquatic systems, how they impact their environment, and how they interact in complex ecosystems such as methane seeps, hydrothermal vents, coral reefs, microbial mats, or deep biosphere. Metabolisms include different photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and chemoautotrophic pathways. Interpretation of geochemical profiles and understanding of how microorganisms govern mineralization and element cycling in aquatic systems. Concurrently scheduled with course CM114. S/U or letter grading.

240A. Radar Meteorology. (4) Lecture, three hours. Radar detection of spherical and nonspherical particles; use of radar in studying size distributions of cloud and precipitation particles, precipitation intensity and amount, updraft velocities, horizontal wind speed, and turbulence; radar observations of convective clouds, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, squall lines, and fronts; clear air echoes. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

C240B. Remote Sensing of Atmosphere and Oceans. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: Physics 1C or 6B. Theory and techniques of remote sensing; atmospheric spectroscopy, scattering, and polarization; passive and active techniques; relevant satellite systems; inversion methods; remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, temperature, precipitation, and trace constituents; remote sensing of oceans and biosphere. Concurrently scheduled with course C160. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

244A. Atmospheric Radiation. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 203B. Presentation of computational methods for solar and thermal infrared radiative fluxes and heating rates in clear, aerosol, and cloudy atmospheres for climate studies. Topics include line-by-line and correlated k-distribution methods for treating gaseous absorption, simplified methods for radiative transfer in Rayleigh and Lorenz/Mie atmospheres, and global radiative equilibrium. Use of user-friendly computer code required to perform calculations of radiative fluxes and heating rates in various atmospheric conditions for climate applications. S/U or letter grading.

244B. Radiation and Climate. (4) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, one hour. Requisite: course 203B. Radiation budget of Earth/atmosphere system observed from satellites. Introduction to one-dimensional radiative-convective and energy-balance climate models. Climatic impact of increases in greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols. Climatic impact of changes in solar constant, solar insolation, and volcanic eruption. Radiative forcing in global climate models: clouds and aerosols. Role of radiation in numerical simulation of interannual variability. S/U or letter grading.

Upper Atmosphere and Space Physics

M250A. Solar System Magnetohydrodynamics. (4) (Formerly numbered 250A.) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M263A.) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course C205A. Derivation of MHD equations with two fluid aspects, generalized Ohm’s law, small amplitude waves, discontinuities, shock waves, and instabilities. Applications to statics and dynamics of solar wind and planetary magnetospheres and to solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

250B. Solar System Microscopic Plasma Processes. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course C205A. Adiabatic charged particle dynamics; incoherent radiation processes; collective effects in plasma; propagation characteristics of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; introduction to resonant interaction between charged particles and plasma waves. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

256. Ionospheric Electrodynamics. (4) Lecture, three hours. Ionospheric structure, currents, and electric fields; equatorial and high-latitude ionospheres; ionospheric control of magnetospheric phenomena. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

257. Radiation Belt Plasma Physics. (4) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 250B. Turbulent plasma instabilities and their relation to satellite observations and magnetospheric structure. Processes responsible for source, loss, and transport of energetic radiation belt particles. S/U (for majors with consent of instructor after successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examination and for nonmajors at discretion of major department) or letter grading.

258. Sources and Losses of Magnetospheric Plasma. (4) Lecture, three hours. Transfer of plasma across magnetopause, sources for magnetotail, ionospheric plasma flow to magnetosphere, precipitation of magnetospheric particles, plasmasphere, and ring current. S/U or letter grading.

259. Space Weather. (4) Lecture, three hours. Identification, description, and theories for major disturbances in magnetosphere/ionosphere/thermosphere system. Storms, substorms, convection bays, and other disturbances. Connections to interplanetary conditions, particle injection and precipitation, currents and fields. S/U or letter grading.

C260. Data Analysis in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. (4) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, one hour. Enforced requisite: one course from 101 through M105. Overview of data analytic methods in common use in atmospheric and oceanic research. Linear models, principal component analysis (empirical orthogonal function), time-series analysis, and clustering methods. Model validation and evaluation, significance tests, error analysis, bias detection. Emphasis on practical applications, with specific examples from atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Concurrently scheduled with course C182. S/U or letter grading.

Special Studies

270. Seminar: Atmospheric Sciences. (2) Seminar, one hour. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

271. Seminar: Atmospheric Dynamics. (2) Seminar, one hour. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

M272A-M272B-M272C. Seminars: Climate Dynamics. (2 to 4 each) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M270A-M270B-M270C and Geography M270A-M270B-M270C.) Seminar, two hours. Archaeological, geochemical, micropaleontological, and stratigraphic evidence for climate change throughout geological past. Rheology and dynamics of climatic subsystems: atmosphere and oceans, ice sheets and marine ice, lithosphere and mantle. Climate of other planets. Modeling, simulation, and prediction of modern climate on monthly, seasonal, and interannual time scale. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

274. Seminar: Atmospheric Chemistry. (2) Seminar, one hour. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

M275A-M275B-M275C. Seminars: Space Physics. (2-2-2) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M288A-M288B-M288C.) Seminar, one hour. Problems of current interest concerning particles and fields in space. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

276. Seminar: Mesoscale Processes. (2) Seminar, one hour. Selected topics of current research interest in convection, extratropical cyclones, and fronts. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

277. Seminar: Coastal Ocean. (2) Seminar, one hour. Selected topics of current interdisciplinary research in marine and coastal sciences, including physical oceangraphy, biogeochemistry, marine biology, coastal engineering, atmospheric processes, and health-related issues. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

281. Special Topics in Dynamic Meteorology. (2 to 4) Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. Content varies from year to year. S/U or letter grading.

282. Special Topics in Oceanography. (2 to 4) Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

283. Special Topics in Atmospheric Physics. (2 to 4) Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

284. Special Topics in Atmospheric Chemistry. (2 to 4) Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

285. Special Topics in Solar Planetary Relations. (2 to 4) Lecture, two hours. Individual meetings with instructor to be arranged. Selected topics of current research interest in solar wind, magnetospheric, or ionospheric physics. S/U or letter grading.

286. Statistical Prediction and Verification. (2) Seminar, on e hour; discussion, one hour. Statistical prediction and verification. Topics include multiple linear regression, logistic regression (probability prediction), objective prediction using traditional statistical methods, ensemble prediction. S/U grading.

296A-296L. Advanced Topics in Atmospheric Sciences. (2 each) Discussion, two hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in atmospheric sciences. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading: 296A. Numerical Modeling of Atmosphere; 296B. Boundary Layers, Clouds, and Climate; 296C. Numerical Mesoscale Modeling; 296D. Climate Dynamics; 296E. Numerical Modeling of Atmosphere and Ocean; 296F. Hierarchical Modeling of Ocean/Atmosphere System; 296G. Upper Atmosphere and Space Physics; 296H. Recent Advances in Atmospheric Chemistry; 296I. Upper Atmospheric Dynamics; 296J. Experimental Mesoscale Meteorology; 296K. Tropical Meteorology; 296L. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Oceanography, and Climate; 296M. Radiation and Remote Sensing; 296N. Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate Modeling and Analysis; 296P. Atmospheric Chemistry of Air Pollution, Aerosols, and Climate.

375. Teaching Apprentice Practicum. (1 to 4) Seminar, to be arranged. Preparation: apprentice personnel employment as teaching assistant, associate, or fellow. Teaching apprenticeship under active guidance and supervision of regular faculty member responsible for curriculum and instruction at UCLA. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

495. Teaching Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. (2) Seminar, one hour; two-day intensive training session prior to Fall Quarter. Required of all new teaching assistants and recommended for new PhD students and graduate students intending to be teaching assistants during academic year. Introduction to classroom teaching for general education and upper-division departmental courses. Topics include pedagogical techniques, preparation, academic integrity, and integration of technology and electronic communications. S/U grading.

596. Directed Studies for Graduate Students. (2 to 8) Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.

597. Preparation for MS Comprehensive Examination. (2 to 8) Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.

598. Research for and Preparation of MS Thesis. (2 to 8) Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.

599. Research for PhD Dissertation. (2 to 8) Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.