Education Graduate Courses

200A. Historical Research and Writing. (4) Lecture, four hours. Methods of historical research and writing for students who are or who will be engaged in research and in report or paper or thesis writing, regardless of their field of interest. S/U or letter grading.

200B. Survey Research Methods in Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 230A. Problems of conceptualization, organization, and gathering nonexperimental and quasi-experimental quantitative and qualitative data. S/U or letter grading.

200C. Analysis of Survey Data in Education. (4) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Requisite: course 200B. Introduction to techniques of processing and analyzing nonexperimental and quasi-experimental quantitative data. S/U or letter grading.

200D. Research Methods: Special Topics. (4) Lecture, four hours. Variable topics in research methods in education. S/U or letter grading.

M201C. History of American Education. (4) (Same as History M264.) Discussion, three hours. History of educational thought and of social forces impinging on American education from 1880s to present. Analysis of relation between these ideas and forces, and aims and practices of American education today. S/U or letter grading.

202. Evaluation Theory. (4) Lecture, four hours. Prevalent evaluation theories, systems for categorizing these theories, and process of theory development in educational evaluation. S/U or letter grading.

C203. Educational Anthropology. (5) Seminar, four hours. Research seminar designed to familiarize students with discipline of anthropology and subfield of anthropology and education. Exploration of concept of culture through various anthropological perspectives, with focus on theories of culture, cultural transmission and acquisition, and cultural reproduction and production for understanding schooling and its outcomes. Examination of research methodologies in anthropology, as well as critical historical overview of discipline and current debates and dilemmas of doing anthropological research in educational settings. Issues of race, gender, sexual orientation, and class, and consideration of application of anthropological theory and methods to educational practice and research. Concurrently scheduled with course C126. Letter grading.

204A. Introduction to Education and Social Sciences. (4) Lecture, four hours. Interdisciplinary course intended to introduce students to study of educational issues, texts, and movements of thought through social sciences and comparative perspectives. S/U or letter grading.

204B. Introduction to Comparative Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Examination of conceptual and methodological questions underlying comparative education. Particular attention to development of field and to styles of social analysis that may be applied to comparative and cross-national studies in education. S/U or letter grading.

204C. Education and National Development. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Analysis of various social sciences perspectives and methodologies (including modernization, dependency, Marxist, neo-Marxist, liberation theology, and world-system theories of change and development) and changing notions of role of education in development of less-industrialized countries of world. S/U or letter grading.

204D. Minority Education in Cross-Cultural Perspective. (4) Lecture, four hours. Historical and contemporary analyses of educational policies with regard to ethnic, religious, and linguistic minorities through selected national and international case studies. Introduction to cross-cultural education in representative countries in relation to social, political, and economic systems. S/U or letter grading.

204E. International Efforts in Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Critical analysis of complex world of “development cooperation,” with particular reference to bilateral and multilateral efforts in education. S/U or letter grading.

204F. Nonformal Education in Comparative Perspective. (4) Lecture, four hours. Comparative and international study of organized and systematic educational activity for children, youth, and adults carried on outside of schools. Types of programs include, among others, consciousness raising, community action, skills training, literacy, and extension programs. S/U or letter grading.

205. Computers in Educational Process. (4) Lecture, four hours. Introduction to theory, experimentation, evaluation, and future of computer systems in education, with emphasis on computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and use of computers to teach programming and to foster development of writing, computational, and filing skills. S/U or letter grading.

206A. Philosophy of Education: Introduction. (4) Lecture, four hours. Systematic introduction to field, indicating ways in which philosophy serves to elucidate educational aims, content, methods, and values. S/U or letter grading.

C207. Politics of Education. (5) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Political dimensions of education institutions as organizations. Relationships between education institutions and political institutions in society. Political theory as foundation for public policy analysis; interest groups in education policy formation and implementation; and focus on Freireian pedagogy. Concurrently scheduled with course C125. S/U or letter grading.

208A. Perspectives on Sociology of Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Sociological perspectives on current issues in educational policy and practice, including desegregation, decentralization, equality of educational opportunity, structure of educational organization, teacher/student relationships, reform in education at elementary, secondary, postsecondary levels. S/U or letter grading.

208B. (Im)migrant Youth, Ethnography, and Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Exploration of experiences of immigrant youth in U.S. schools, with focus on language, culture, and educational equity in urban settings. Letter grading.

208C. Explanation in Social Sciences and Educational Research. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Designed for graduate students. Overview of basic strategies and forms of explanation relevant to inquiry in education from vantage point of various social and behavioral sciences disciplines. S/U or letter grading.

C209A. History of Higher Education. (5) Seminar, four hours. Exploration of major eras in history of higher education. Topics include issues concerning access, diversity, parental choice, cultural literacy, teacher empowerment, and role of popular media. Concurrently scheduled with course C124. S/U or letter grading.

209C. Research and Evaluation in Higher Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Development of conceptual and practical understanding of research and evaluation in higher education. Topics include basic statistics, survey design, data analysis, assessment issues, and research proposal writing. Letter grading.

210. Education as Profession: Theory, Research, and Practice. (4) Lecture, 90 minutes; discussion, two and one half hours. Introduction to major issues and approaches in educational research through series of faculty presentations, selected readings, and writing assignments. Letter grading.

211A. Educational and Psychological Measurement: Underlying Theory and Practice. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 230A. Measurement theory as applied to educational and psychological testing, with focus primarily on classical test theory, reliability estimation, and test construction and selection. S/U or letter grading.

211B. Educational and Psychological Measurement: Generalizability Theory. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 230A, 230B, 230C. Basic and advanced topics in use of generalizability theory to address problems in measurement. S/U or letter grading.

211C. Advanced Item Response Theory. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisites: course 211A or 211B or Psychology 255A, Psychology 255B. Review of standard item response theory models, multidimensional models, multiple group models and models with covariates, item and person parameter estimation, differential item functioning analysis, testing model fit, linking and scale alignment, computerized adaptive testing. S/U or letter grading.

212A. Learning and Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Models of learning, modeling, reinforcement, motivation, encoding, memory, transfer, individual differences, and instruction. S/U or letter grading.

212B. Motivation and Affect in Educative Process. (4) Lecture, four hours. Review of theoretical and empirical literature on motivational factors in school settings and conditions for acquisition of affective outcomes. S/U or letter grading.

213C. Group Counseling Theory and Process. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 414A. Group productivity, leadership in groups, social perception, attitude formation, and effect of behavior changes in individuals and groups. Evaluation of social, psychological, and educational principles related to therapeutic experiences of individuals in small groups. Letter grading.

213D. Assessment in Counseling and Student Affairs. (4) Lecture, four hours. Overview of assessment issues and methods used in counseling and student affairs activities. Emphasis on concepts of testing and measurement, applications of measurement theory, and contemporary issues that are significant in influencing assessment in student affairs programs. Letter grading.

214A. Counseling Theory and Practice. (4) Lecture, four hours. Alternatives in counseling practice in relation to theories of personality development and functioning, research on effectiveness of counseling, professional issues in counseling, educational aspects of counseling. S/U or letter grading.

214C. American Professoriate: Faculty Status, Role, and Performance. (4) Discussion, four hours. Historical and contemporary issues involving American professoriate. Topics include employment, academic culture, teaching and research, reward structure, faculty development. Letter grading.

214E. Substance Abuse and Addiction. (4) Lecture, four hours. Theory and practice of prevention and intervention in substance abuse and addiction from perspective of counseling and educational practice. S/U or letter grading.

214F. Student Problems: Social Context. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed to assist students in understanding configuration of social forces that lead to student dysfunctions. Consideration of number of contemporary social problems that are of concern to school counselors, educators in general, and behavioral scientists. S/U or letter grading.

M215. Personality, Motivation, and Attribution. (4) (Same as Psychology M239.) Discussion, three hours. Current research and theory relating personality variables (e.g., attributional styles, self-esteem) to motivational concerns such as persistence and intensity of behavior. Perceived causes of outcomes in achievement and affiliative domains. S/U or letter grading.

216. Counseling Models from Cross-Cultural Perspective. (4) Lecture, four hours. Research related to psychological, educational, and sociological characteristics of counseling clients within cross-cultural perspective and implications for counseling models. Evaluation of counseling practices through analysis of school, community, and mental health settings. Letter grading.

217A. Social Development and Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Biological and familial, school, and other influences on children; development in context of current research and theoretical models; consideration of theoretical and methodological research on family, peer group, and school; application of developmental theory and research to educational practice. S/U or letter grading.

217B. Cognitive Development and Education. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Designed for graduate students. Critical review of theories and research in cognitive development, with focus on work of Piaget and Vygotsky, and relation of this work to issues in educational practice. S/U or letter grading.

M217C. Personality Development and Education. (4) (Same as Psychology M245.) Lecture, four hours. Review of research and theory of critical content areas in personality development that bear on school performance: achievement motivation, self-concept, aggression, sex differences, empathy, and other social behaviors; review of status of emotional behavior in personality theory and development. S/U or letter grading.

217D. Language Development and Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Research and theory on how children develop their first language; sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic issues in preschool and primary years; bilingual and dialectical issues. S/U or letter grading.

217E. Emerging into Adulthood. (4) Seminar, four hours. Examination of theories and research related to transition to adulthood and role of race/ethnicity, gender, and immigration status in shaping development. Topics include historical and cross-cultural comparisons of emerging adulthood; ethnic, racial, and gender identity; family relationships and expectations; college opportunities and experiences; entering workforce; alternative pathways (incarceration and military); and civic engagement. Letter grading.

M217F. Adolescent Development. (4) (Same as Psychology M242G.) Seminar, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Review of recent research on physical, cognitive, social, and psychological development during second decade of life. Topics include pubertal development, changes in parent/adolescent relationships, role of peers, identity development, high-risk behaviors, stress and coping, and school adjustment. Letter grading.

M217G-M217H-M217I. Child Abuse and Neglect. (2-2-1).

(Same as Community Health Sciences M245A-M245B-M245C, Dentistry M300A-M300B-M300C, Law M281A-M281B, Medicine M290A-M290B, Nursing M290A-M290B-M290C, and Social Welfare M203F-M203G-M203H.) Lecture, two hours. Course M217G is requisite to M217H, which is requisite to M217I. Intensive interdisciplinary study of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect, with lectures by faculty members of Schools of Dentistry, Law, Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health and Departments of Education and Psychology, as well as by relevant public agencies. Letter grading.

218. Measurement of Educational Achievement and Aptitude. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 230A. Critical study of tests of achievement and aptitude, with emphasis on group tests; relation of achievement to aptitude; social implications of measurement of intelligence; elements of validity and reliability. S/U or letter grading.

219. Laboratory: Advanced Topics in Research Methodology. (4) Laboratory, four hours. Provides assistance in design of research and interpretation of data to advanced students from other divisions. Coverage of special topics not included in other courses on research methods. S/U or letter grading.

220A. Inquiry into Schooling: Organization and Change. (4) Lecture, four hours. Critical analysis of issues in reconstruction of schooling; concepts of function and structure of schooling; organization theory; systems approaches in analysis of organization development and change. S/U or letter grading.

221. Computer Analyses of Empirical Data in Education. (4) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, two hours. Requisites: courses 209C (section 1), 230A. Designed to develop conceptual and technical skills needed for designing and executing empirical research utilizing statistical packages. Each student conducts two original studies. Equal emphasis on techniques of data analysis and interpretation of results. S/U or letter grading.

222A. Introduction to Qualitative Methods and Design Issues in Educational Research. (4) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introductory course for students interested in epistemology, theories, and styles of qualitative research in educational settings. Theory and practice of naturalistic, qualitative research design covered in second half of course. Letter grading.

222B. Participant-Observation Field Methods. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Requisite: course 222A. First of two courses on participant-observation field methods. Key skills (e.g., observation, recording, interviewing, role management, data storage) learned through classroom lectures and simulations, and by conducting actual field-based research project. Letter grading.

222C. Qualitative Data Reduction and Analysis. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Requisite: course 222B. Continuation of fieldwork project started in course 222B, with focus on practical skills and conceptual/methodological issues involved in reducing and analyzing qualitative data. Letter grading.

222D. Qualitative Inquiry: Special Topics. (4) Lecture, four hours. Special topics course on some field or aspect of qualitative inquiry. Topics may include classroom ethnography, advanced ethnographic writing and/or multimedia design, discourse analysis, and microethnography of social interaction. S/U or letter grading.

223. Procedural Issues in Evaluation. (4) Lecture, four hours. Assessment methodologies appropriate for evaluation problems. Writing evaluation proposals, developing program monitoring procedures, selecting appropriate evaluation design strategies, coping with ethical considerations in evaluation, framing decision context, and reporting evaluation results. Letter grading.

224. Problems and Issues in Bilingual and Multicultural Education. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Introduction to development and implementation of bilingual and multicultural programs in U.S. Analysis of program goals, models, typologies, and effectiveness. S/U or letter grading.

225A. Issues in Education of Exceptional Individuals. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Analysis of major research regarding contemporary trends, issues, and programs for exceptional individuals; consideration of commonalities and differences among exceptional individuals. S/U or letter grading.

225B. Advanced Issues in Education of Exceptional Individuals. (4) Lecture, four hours. Synthesis of developmental and educational theory relevant to study of exceptional individuals, including consideration of historical context of current research and applied issues in special education. S/U or letter grading.

226. Seminar: Special Topics in Writing, Rhetoric, and Educational Methodology. (4) Seminar, four hours. Special topics seminar on writing in education that could focus on history of writing about education, social and political dimensions of it, its variation by discipline, and its uses in professional and public contexts. Letter grading.

227A. Research on Learning Characteristics of Exceptional Individuals. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 225B. Overview of research and theory regarding learning characteristics of exceptional individuals and discussion of application of this work to educational practice. S/U or letter grading.

227B. Research on Cognitive and Language Characteristics of Exceptional Individuals. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 227A. Review of empirical and theoretical literature regarding language and cognitive development of exceptional individuals; focus on intervention programs developing language and cognition. S/U or letter grading.

227C. Research on Behavioral and Social Characteristics of Exceptional Individuals. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 227B. Analysis of social and emotional development of exceptional individuals and development of social competence in special education programs. S/U or letter grading.

228. Observation Methods and Longitudinal Studies. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Requisite: course 230A. Design of observational and longitudinal studies. Formulation of study conclusions concerning influences on children’s development. Conduct of observations; processing and analysis of data. Use of portable computers for recording observations. S/U or letter grading.

229. Seminar: Special Topics in Urban Schooling. (4) Seminar, four hours. Research on selected topics in fields of administration, policy, curriculum, and teaching studies and on conceptualization of hypotheses and research programs on division topics and issues. Letter grading.

CM229B. Narratives of Justice: Disrupting School-to-Prison Pipeline — Arts, Activism, and Agency. (4) (Same as African American Studies CM213.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Exploration of policies and practices, art and activism, and other forms of agency engaging school-to-prison pipeline. Concurrently scheduled with course CM163. S/U or letter grading.

230A. Introduction to Research Design and Statistics. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Key concepts and issues in design and conduct of social sciences research. Introduction to descriptive statistics and fundamentals of statistical inference. Letter grading.

230AL. Introduction to Research Design and Statistics: Computer Laboratory. (1) Laboratory, one hour. Corequisite: course 230A. Computer data analysis laboratory for introductory research design and statistics. Instruction in SPSS, Stata, and SAS statistical analysis packages. S/U grading.

230B. Linear Statistical Models in Social Science Research: Multiple Regression Analysis. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 230A or passing score on screening examination. Solid and comprehensive training in regression-based methods for analyzing quantitative social science data. Letter grading.

230BL. Linear Statistical Models: Computer Laboratory. (1) Laboratory, one hour. Corequisite: course 230B. Computer data analysis laboratory for linear statistical models. Instruction in SPSS, Stata, SAS, and other relevant statistical analysis packages. S/U grading.

230C. Linear Statistical Models in Social Science Research: Analysis of Designed Experiments. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 230A, 230B. Solid and comprehensive training in experimental design and analysis methods, especially use of analysis of variance methods. Letter grading.

230CL. Linear Statistical Models for Experimental Research: Computer Laboratory. (1) Laboratory, one hour. Corequisite: course 230C. Computer data analysis laboratory for linear statistical models for experimental research. Instruction in SPSS and SAS statistical analysis packages. S/U grading.

230X. Applied Research Design and Statistics for Social Sciences. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 230A or passing score on screening examination. Introduction to commonly used statistical methods in social sciences, including regression, analysis of variance, contingency tables. Emphasis on application and interpretation. Letter grading.

231A. Toolkit for Quantitative Methods Research. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 230A, 230B, 230C. Elementary probability. Working knowledge with calculus. Mathematical and statistical results useful for advanced quantitative methodology research. Matrix algebra. Random vectors. Multivariate distribution theory. Likelihood and Bayesian estimation and inference. Linear and generalized linear models. Simulation. S/U or letter grading.

M231B. Factor Analysis. (4) (Same as Psychology M253.) Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 211B, 231A. Exploratory factor analysis, rotations, confirmatory factor analysis, multiple-group analysis. S/U or letter grading.

231BL. Factor Analysis: Computer Laboratory. (1) Laboratory, one hour. Corequisite: course M231B. Computer data analysis laboratory for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Instruction in CEFA, LISREL, and other relevant statistical analysis packages. S/U grading.

231C. Analysis of Categorical and Other Nonnormal Data. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 230B, 230C. Regression analysis with dichotomous and polytomous dependent variables, log-linear modeling, coefficients of association for categorical variables, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. Letter grading.

231D. Advanced Quantitative Models in Nonexperimental Research: Multilevel Analysis. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 230B, 230C. Examination of conceptual, substantive, and methodological issues in analyzing multilevel data (i.e., on individuals in organizational settings such as schools, corporations, hospitals, communities); consideration of alternative analytical models. Letter grading.

M231E. Statistical Analysis with Latent Variables. (4) (Same as Statistics M244.) Lecture, three hours. Requisites: courses 231A, M231B. Extends path analysis (causal modeling) by considering models with measurement errors and multiple indicators of latent variables. Confirmatory factor analysis, covariance structure modeling, and multiple-group analysis. Identification, estimation, testing, and model building considerations. Letter grading.

231EL. Latent Variable Modeling: Computer Laboratory. (1) Laboratory, one hour. Corequisite: course M231E. Computer data analysis laboratory for latent variable modeling. Instruction in LISREL and other relevant statistical analysis packages. S/U grading.

232. Instructional Analysis. (4) Lecture, four hours. Theoretical and empirical analysis of instructional variables as they relate to diverse types of instructional strategies. Development of skill in techniques of conducting instructional research. S/U or letter grading.

233. Professional Writing in Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Intended to assist in professional development as writers, with focus on style and organization, scholarly genres, modes of discourse, and broader issues of conceptualization and method. Letter grading.

234. Critical Perspectives on Economic Approaches to Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Introduction to concepts and principles in economics of education using critical perspective. Overview of evolving relationship between education and economics, including growing use of education as economic policy tool and increased role of economic principles in internal functioning of educational systems. S/U or letter grading.

235. Comparative Political Economy of Education and Skills. (4) Seminar, four hours. Use of political economy of education perspective for exploring, at international and comparative levels, link between alternative models of governing, providing and financing education and training systems and impact of alternatives on outcomes such as unequal chances to learn, types of skill formation, and well-being. S/U or letter grading.

236. Human Abilities. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 230A. Nature, development, and measurement of intellectual abilities and their relations to learning and instruction. Review of research and theory of models of ability and test development. S/U or letter grading.

237. Law and Urban Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Examination of recent legal controversies that may impact ability of urban educators to meet needs of students in multicultural society, with special emphasis on such equity-related issues as desegregation, school finance, standardized testing, and rights of language minority students. Letter grading.

238. Cross-National Analysis of Higher Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Comparative study of national systems of higher education: their division of work, basic values, structures of authority, modes of national integration, and types of change. S/U or letter grading.

239. Organization and Governance of Educational Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours. Academic organizations, precollegiate and postsecondary, are most appropriately studied as complex, professionalized organizations. Emphasis on characteristics of educational institutions and systems as organizations: environmental relations, governance structures, processes, and patterns of decision making and policymaking. S/U or letter grading.

240. Immigrant Children and Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Examination of immigrant child and youth experience, with primary focus on educational outcomes. Topics include historical changes in experiences of immigrant youth, dynamics of immigrant families, cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic status-related influences in immigrant youths’s adjustment, and school-family connections. Letter grading.

241. Research Methodology in School Administration. (4) Lecture, four hours. Examination of research problems and strategies in school administration. S/U or letter grading.

243. Reflections on Methods in Social Sciences. (4) Lecture, four hours. Preparation: two research methods courses. Fundamental issues surrounding use of methods in social sciences, including issues in philosophy of social sciences, relationship between theory and facts, ontological status of constructs, cognition and social research, sources of evidence in ethnography, research and social policy. Letter grading.

C244. Theory and Practice of Intergroup Dialogue: Building Facilitation Skills. (4) Seminar, four hours. Topics include social psychology of intergroup relations, intercultural and dialogic communication theories, methods for reconciling and bridging differences in schools and communities, research and evaluation of intergroup dialogues and other educational methods for improving intergroup relations, and core competencies for planning, delivering, and evaluating intergroup dialogues in multicultural settings. While providing foundational grounding in theory and pedagogy of intergroup dialogue, particular attention to relationships between intergroup dynamics, structural inequalities, systems of privilege and oppression, and mental health outcomes and disparities among populations. Concurrently scheduled with course C160. Letter grading.

245. Seminar: Cost-Benefit Analysis in Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of cost-benefit analysis, critical analysis of current cost-benefit studies, and procedures for conduct of cost-benefit studies. S/U or letter grading.

246A. Decision Analysis and Advanced Computer Methods for Educational Policy and Planning. (4) Seminar, four hours. How information technology and decision analysis impact K-12 schooling, higher education, and technical training/workplace settings. With research paper, oral presentation, and two research briefs, students can pursue decision analysis areas of special interest to their professional and career objectives. S/U or letter grading.

247. Special Topics in Law and Educational Policy. (4) Lecture, four hours. Policy-based inquiry with focus on specific law-related debates that inevitably influence both K-12 and higher education communities. Identification of strategies that have been successfully employed by those who have sought to use law to shape educational policy. Letter grading.

248. Seminar: Special Topics in Child Development and Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Content varies; limits of investigation set by individual instructor. S/U or letter grading.

250A. Fundamentals of U.S. Higher Education System. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Two-course sequence designed to orient new students to issues, ideas, and literature that constitute this division, with emphasis on underlying social and political issues that shape higher education and organizational change. Letter grading.

250B. Organizational Analysis of Higher Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Two-course sequence designed to orient new students to issues, ideas, and literature that constitute this division, with emphasis on underlying social and political issues that shape higher education and organizational change. Letter grading.

250C. Theoretical Frameworks of Higher Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Overview of various social sciences theories used to analyze institutions and issues of contemporary higher education. Explanation of how theory and methodology affect research design and framing of research questions in studies of higher education. Letter grading.

252A. Seminar: Educational Organizations. (4) Seminar, four hours. Requisite: course 208A. S/U or letter grading.

252B. Educational Enterprise. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Requisite: course 252A. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Use of structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frames to study K-16 education, with focus on educational environments, organizations, and curriculum and instruction. Letter grading.

M253A. Seminar: Current Problems in Comparative Education. (4) (Same as Gender Studies M253A.) Seminar, four hours. Examination of some of most influential critical theorists, including Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, Marcuse, Foucault, Fanon, and de Beauvoir and their contributions to critique of contemporary education, society, and politics. S/U or letter grading.

253B. Seminar: African Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Contemporary issues in African educational systems, including questions of access and equity, quality and efficiency, relevance and responsiveness, links between schools and communities, and policy and practice in education. S/U or letter grading.

253C. Seminar: Asian Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

253D. Seminar: Latin American Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

253E. Seminar: European Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

253F. Seminar: Education in Revolutionary Societies. (4) Seminar, four hours. Multidisciplinary and comparative study of socialist educational theory examined through writings of Marx, Lenin, Mao, and others. Implementation of this theory in specific case studies, along with comparative assessments of nonsocialist nations. S/U or letter grading.

253G. Seminar: Asian Americans and Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Basic issues and topics related to Asian Americans in field of education. Examples of issues and topics include Asian Americans and community, socioeconomic status, education-to-work transition, language and culture question. S/U or letter grading.

253H. Seminar: Chicanos/Hispanics and Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Basic issues and topics related to Chicanos and other Hispanic groups in education. Review of literature on specific educational levels and Chicano/Hispanic student progress (e.g., early childhood, elementary, higher education; specific topics: assessment, access, tracking, segregation; implications for schooling). S/U or letter grading.

253I. Education and Social Change in Middle East and Islamic World. (4) Seminar, four hours. Critical and analytic examination of historical and current role of traditional and modern (Western) education in affecting social, political, and economic changes in countries of Middle East and Islamic world (including Pacific Rim, South and Central Asia). S/U or letter grading.

254. Seminar: History of Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Requisite: course M201C. Study of current movements in historiography of education and critical reading of texts in history of education. S/U or letter grading.

255A-255B-255C. Seminars: Special Topics. (4-4-4) Seminar, four hours. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading. 255A. Measurement; 255B. Design; 255C. Data Analysis.

256A. Seminar: Special Topics in School Learning. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

256B. Seminar: Special Topics in Development. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

257. Seminar: Research in Counseling Psychology. (4) Seminar, four hours. In-depth analysis of selected research approaches/areas in counseling psychology. S/U or letter grading.

258A. Seminar: Problems in Instructional Research. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

258B. Seminar: Problems in Instructional Development. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

259. Administration of International Programs in Higher Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Introduction to theory and practice of internationalization in U.S. higher education, looking at meaning of concept of comprehensive internationalization across campus, issues of effective leadership and management, and individual aspects of internationalization, including study abroad program development and implementation, international student recruitment and support services, international curriculum — area and language studies, English as a second language programs, international internships and careers, faculty development in international travel and research, international partnerships/branch campuses, international development and grant projects, international alumni, distance learning/massive open online courses (MOOCs)/hybrid models. Letter grading.

260. Seminar: Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

261E. Higher Education Seminar: Diversity Issues and Research Perspectives. (4) Seminar, four hours. Examination of how racial diversity and its related dynamics have transformed and at same time been reshaped by institutions of higher education, with focus specifically on student experiences, curricula, institutional climate, educational policies, and administrative practices. Letter grading.

261F. Seminar: Cognitive and Personal Development of College Students. (4) Seminar, four hours. Examination of cognitive development of college students; issues of personal and social development, including leadership, and interpersonal relations and skills. S/U or letter grading.

262B. Seminar: Reading. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

262F. Seminar: Research Topics in Bilingual/Multicultural Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

263. Seminar: Higher Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

264. Seminar: Teacher Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Research, issues, and practices in preservice and in-service teacher preparation, evaluation, and certification. Social, philosophical, and methodological issues and current trends in America and abroad. Opportunities to observe, participate in, and discuss teacher education programs. S/U or letter grading.

265. Higher Education Policy. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 250A, 250B. Understanding public policy for higher education requires understanding of both issues and policy process. Review of major topics on which U.S. government is active, as well as key actors and their influence. Letter grading.

M266. Feminist Theory and Social Sciences Research. (4) (Same as Gender Studies M266.) Lecture, four hours. Examination of how diverse feminist social theories of last quarter century have both challenged and strengthened conventional social sciences theories and their methodologies. Introduction especially to feminist standpoint theory, distinctive critical theory methodology now widely used in social sciences. Letter grading.

267. Seminar: Educational Technology. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

268. Theorizing Reading: Rhetorics of Academic Discourse. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Designed for graduate students. Introduction to theoretical approaches to reading, such as poststructuralist, feminist, deconstruction, reader reception, and semiotics, and to core ideas of some leading theorists of reading, such as Roland Barthes, Wolfgang Iser, Barbara Johnson, Stanley Fish, and Gayatri Spivak. Letter grading.

269. Representations of Education in Cinema. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Designed for graduate students. Exploration of ways in which we draw on diverse “texts,” particularly films set in or around schools, to illuminate contemporary issues in American secondary education (e.g., issues pertaining to representation of teachers, students, parents, and administrators and curriculum in popular films about high school and adolescents). Letter grading.

270. Introduction to Cultural Studies. (4) Lecture, four hours. Investigation of current trends in cultural studies through examination of different methods of cultural interpretation, seminal texts in cultural studies, and practical criticism engaging popular artifacts of media culture. Emphasis on developing critical media literacy as goal of cultural studies. Letter grading.

271A. Proseminar: Educational Psychology. (2) Seminar, two hours. Introduction to variety of research issues in field of educational psychology, including topics related to human development, learning and instruction, counseling, and special education, and to different methodological approaches used to study them. S/U grading.

272. Case-Study Research in Education Policy and Practice. (4) Discussion, four hours. Use of case-study methods in education research, providing opportunities for applying methodological skills to actual case-study research projects. Focus on single and multiple case studies that investigate issues in education policy and practice. Letter grading.

273A. Structure and Dynamics of Educational System. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Overview of school administration, teaching, curriculum, and policy studies. Focus on American education as institutional system wherein federal, state, and local policy, school administration, curriculum theory and design, and teaching are inextricably connected in delivery of education. Letter grading.

273B. Social Foundations of Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Introduction to literature on multiculturalism and teachings in diverse social, cultural, and economic contexts. Exploration of debates over multiculturalism and teaching for democratic citizenship by review of diverse number of anthropological, sociological, educational curricula and literatures. Letter grading.

274. Science, Technology, and Social Research after Eurocentrism. (4) Lecture, four hours. Philosophy of natural sciences for social scientists that examines challenges to conventional research assumptions raised by multicultural and postcolonial science and technology studies that have emerged since World War II. Focus on sciences and technologies in third-world development projects, comparative ethnoscience movements, and new theories of knowledge and how to do maximally objective research emerging from these literatures. Letter grading.

275. Race and Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Examination of role of race in educational policymaking. Exploration of broad interpretation of how schools contribute to racial stratification and inequality by linking sociological and sociopsychological theories of race, racial attitudes, and conflict to historical policy analysis. Letter grading.

276. Contemporary Theories of Writing. (4) Lecture, four hours. Review of current theories of writing and literacy research and examination of relationships among writing and literacy, culture, and human development. In particular, examination of history of writing research over last three decades as part of broader intellectual history. Letter grading.

277. Language in Classroom. (4) Seminar/fieldwork, four hours. Survey of language and literacy theories and examination of relationship between literacy learning and social practices of classrooms/schools. Study and utilization of qualitative methods of inquiry and discourse analysis. Letter grading.

CM278. Critical Media Literacy and Politics of Gender: Theory and Production. (4) (Same as Gender Studies CM278.) Seminar, three hours. Corequisite: course CM278L. Use of range of pedagogical approaches to theory and practice of critical media literacy that necessarily involves understanding of new technologies and media forms. Study of both theory and production techniques to inform student analysis of media and critical media literacy projects. Concurrently scheduled with course CM178. Letter grading.

CM278L. Critical Media Literacy and Politics of Gender: Laboratory. (2) (Same as Gender Studies CM278L.) Laboratory, two hours. Corequisite: course CM278. Hands-on production experience as integral component of course CM278. Concurrently scheduled with course CM178L. Letter grading.

279. History of Urban Schooling. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Survey of major events, political and economic forces, and ideas that shaped urban schools since 1890. Examination of historical scholarship across range of political/ideological perspectives. Letter grading.

280A. Seminar: Selected Topics in Special Education. (2 to 6) Seminar, two to six hours. Focus on research and clinical problems in special education. Introduction to range of clinical services and research strategies. Exploration of current topics in field. S/U or letter grading.

280B. Seminar: Exceptional Individuals. (4) Seminar, four hours. Limited to doctoral students. S/U or letter grading.

281. College Access Seminar. (4) Seminar, two hours; discussion, two hours. Knowledge of changing dynamics of college access at individual, organizational, and field levels and understanding of links between K-12 and postsecondary stratification and how educational advantage and disadvantage accumulates throughout education and affects equity in college access. Letter grading.

282. Students at Risk: Reconsideration. (4) Seminar, four hours. Designed for second-year graduate students. Notion of at risk has become standard element of biomedical/public health and educational/social sciences discourse. Consideration of risk from range of disciplines and modes of inquiry. Letter grading.

283. Social Research in Multicultural and Postcolonial World. (4) Lecture, four hours. Philosophy of social sciences that focuses on how to think fruitfully about two issues: (1) inevitability of nonneutral procedures and results of research conducted within liberal state that must be committed to value-neutrality and (2) challenges that multicultural and postcolonial social theory have raised to conventional research theories and methodologies. Letter grading.

284. Critical Theory in Education: Power, Politics, and Liberation. (4) Lecture, four hours. Designed for graduate students. Introduction to major themes, issues, and methodologies within what has come to be known as “critical and educational tradition,” including some major theoretical writings in liberal, neo-Marxist, left liberal/postmodernist, and Marxist subfields of critical education tradition. Letter grading.

285. Education and Law. (4) Lecture, four hours. Examination of recent high-profile, education-related disputes at K-12 and higher education levels. Topics explored include campus safety and privacy, student freedom of expression, technology-related issues and concerns, religion in school, cyberbullying, and accountability for off-campus behavior. Examination of access to quality education by analyzing disputes arising at every stage of education process, from issues regarding practices that may engender school-to-prison pipeline to ongoing legal battles regarding race-conscious policies, K-12 teacher tenure, school sports, unmet needs of English language learners, misuse of special education system, impact of burgeoning charter school movement, and implementation of federal Every Student Succeeds Act. Concurrently taught with Law 282. Letter grading.

287. Research on Language Issues in Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. Roles of language(s) in formal and informal education, including study of opportunities and challenges offered by language variation found in schools. Examination of language acquisition theories along with those of language ideologies, language policies, and multilingualism. Letter grading.

288. Research Apprenticeship Course. (2) Discussion, two hours. Course facilitates mentorship model of training PhD students in education, with focus on development of graduate student research topics. Assignment of common readings related to these topics; students have opportunity to offer and receive feedback. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

M289A-M289B. Immigration, Racial Change, and Education in 21st-Century Metropolis. (4-4) (Same as Political Science M287A-M287B, Public Policy M289A-M289B, and Sociology M290A-M290B.) Seminar, four hours. Examination of metropolitan American society and institutions at beginning of 21st century. Consideration of best available information on patterns of settlement, changing functions of urban space and institutions, and issues of opportunity linked to urban structure in society facing unprecedented demographic change that will end primarily European domination of our society by mid-century, creating democracy with no racial or ethnic majority. How this demographic transition and postindustrial transformation of urban functions and space interact to shape opportunity and inequality. Vast economic transformations, brought about by globalization of workplace and dramatic decline of industrial employment in advanced nations, not only greatly raise stakes on creating equal opportunity but also cut off what were previously extremely important parts of intergenerational mobility. In Progress (M289A) and letter (M289B) grading.

290. Educational Policy Analysis: Research, Theory, and Practice. (4) Seminar, four hours. Broad overview of development of educational policy from 1950s to present. Examination of current issues and debates within educational policy in U.S. through different theoretical lenses. Exploration of major bodies of research on educational policy and alternative paradigms. Letter grading.

M294A-M294B. High School Reform: Persisting Failure, Urgent Challenges. (1 to 8 each) (Same as Law M243A-M243B.) Seminar, four hours. Course M294A is enforced requisite to M294B. Research seminars with focus on what is probably most serious and neglected problem in American educational reform. In past half century real progress has been made in preschool, gains in achievement in early grades have been produced, and very well-regarded system of higher education has been established — but reform of high school has failed. Exploration of institutional and policy roots of these problems and assessment of available research on key dimensions to help students launch original research studies in one related area. Presentations by experts actively involved in high school reform efforts included. In Progress (M294A) and S/U or letter (M294B) grading.

295. Freire. (4) Seminar, four hours. Requisite: course C125 or C207 or prior knowledge of Freire’s work. Analysis of intellectual production of Paulo Freire linked to social context in which it took place. Study of his life and work in five phases: Brazilian Experience (1921 to 1964); Chilean Experience, where he published Education as Practice of Freedom and Pedagogy of Oppressed , as well as other lesser-known works, while also devoting most of this period to empirical research in literacy training (1964 to 1969); his work at Harvard, and then World Council of Churches in Geneva (1970 to 1980), including his consulting with postcolonial revolutionary governments in Africa; his return to Brazil and his work as Secretary of Education in São Paulo (1989 to 1992); and his global travels from 1980 until his death in 1997. Focus on work left incomplete before his death (including eco-pedagogy and citizen’s schools), and by implication his analyses, critiques, and impact in world, his methodology of generative word, and comparisons with other theoretical referents. Letter grading.

296A-296F. Seminars: Research Topics in Education. (2 each) Seminar, three hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in education. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. S/U grading.

296G. Research Topics in Education: Legal Aspects of Educational Management. (2) Lecture, two hours. Examination and analysis of legal issues, especially as they apply to school organizations. Letter grading.

296H. Research Topics in Education: Organizational Theory. (2) Lecture, two hours. Examination and analysis of organizational theories, especially as they apply to school organizations. Letter grading.

296I. Theory in Educational Inquiry. (2) Seminar, two hours. Theory and its application to study of educational settings and institutions. Examination of major paradigms, important schools of thought, and particular theoretical areas and theories within field of education, with focus both on conceptually and empirically based works as means for grounding discussions of theory and application. Letter grading.

296J. Introduction to Survey Research Methods. (2) Seminar, two hours. Introduction to conceptual and methodological issues involved in survey-based research in education, offering structured opportunity to practice various practical aspects of survey (instrument) development. Questionnaire design, format, and delivery; question writing, pretesting, and testing; and sample design and considerations, nonresponse, measurement error, and data preparation. Letter grading.

296K. Research Design. (2) Seminar, two hours. Effective educational leaders require ability to accurately diagnose educational problems before jumping to proposed solutions. Study designs must include systematic ways to collect and analyze data, as well as minimize potential threats to validity of data and analysis. Designed to equip students with tools needed to design research studies that address specific real-world educational problems. Basic understanding of research designs as strategies for investigating educational problems, such as types of questions that can be answered appropriately with qualitative and mixed methods studies, design components, planning for fieldwork and data collection, sampling, ethics, and credibility. Letter grading.

299A-299B-299C. Research Practicum: Education. (4-4-4) Clinical, to be arranged. May be repeated for credit. Letter grading.

300. Dissertation Writing Workshop: Interdivisional Seminar. (4) Seminar, one hour; discussion, two hours; laboratory, one hour. Limited enrollment. Introduction for doctoral candidates to dissertation writing as genre that can be analyzed or broken down with its constituent parts and, vice versa, which is constructed out of materials that can be identified and analyzed. S/U grading.

301. Introduction to Information and Presentation Tools. (2) Laboratory, two hours. Limited to credential program students. Sequence of laboratory sessions providing preservice teachers with introduction to education technology infrastructure and classroom presentation tools. Introduction to resources and services, e-mail functions and Internet, and presentation software and multimedia elements. S/U grading.

305. Health Education for Teachers. (2) Lecture, two hours. Limited to Teacher Education Program students. Teaching/learning process as applied to personal and community health. Topics include psychoactive drugs (alcohol, tobacco, and narcotics), human sexuality, nutrition, community health resources, and analysis of state’s health framework. S/U grading.

309. Methodologies for English Language Learners. (2) Laboratory, two hours. Limited to credential program students. Pedagogy for bilingual and English language learners. Discussion of competencies needed by all content area teachers of English language, including strategies for teaching in and through English. Topics include educational issues, organizational approaches, and communicative approach; strategies and activities. Letter grading.

310. Professional Communication for Graduate Students in Education. (2) Lecture, two hours. Writing workshop on students’s papers in progress to ensure professional standards. Analysis and group discussion of rhetorical and stylistic principles. May be repeated once. S/U grading.

311. Principles and Methods of Computer Literacy and Classroom Application — K-12. (2) Lecture, one hour; laboratory, 30 minutes. Introduction to use of computers in educational environment. Discussion of issues on why and how to integrate computers into curriculum and hands-on practice that allows students to demonstrate skills discussed. S/U grading.

312. Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. (4) Lecture, four hours. Analysis and practice of basic principles and concepts for planning, conducting, and evaluating units of curriculum and instruction. Emphasis on study and utilization of variety of instructional strategies and their application in elementary and secondary schools. S/U or letter grading.

314A. Principles and Methods for Curriculum, Instruction, and Leadership in Mathematics. (6 to 12) Lecture, six to 12 hours. Problem solving, curriculum development, implementation of California Mathematics Framework, strategies for encouraging women and minorities into mathematics, and leadership development. S/U grading.

315. Principles and Methods for Teaching Reading for Multiple Subject Instruction. (3) Lecture, three hours. Reading instruction in elementary schools. Analysis of reading problems and programs; study of relationships between language/culture/cognition and reading. Examination and development of instructional programs; analysis and practice of alternative instructional methods. Observation and participation in schools. Letter grading.

315B. Elementary Literacy Methods. (3) Seminar, three hours. Theoretical principles and pedagogical strategies necessary for developing and maintaining balanced comprehensive literacy program for elementary students. Examination of how children learn to read, write, and use language. Letter grading.

316A-316B. Principles and Methods for Teaching Reading for Single Subject Instruction. (2-2) Lecture, two hours. Course 316A is requisite to 316B. Reading instruction in secondary schools. Analysis of reading problems and programs; study of relationships between language/culture/cognition and reading. Examination and development of instructional programs; analysis and practice of alternative instructional methods. Observation and participation in schools. S/U grading.

318A. Integrated Methods for Elementary Teachers. (3) Lecture, three hours. Examination and development of instructional programs and analyses and practices of instructional methods for teaching K-6 content, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approach that integrates content areas. Aligned with California state frameworks and California content standards for grades K-12 that address needs and interests of diverse students. Letter grading.

318B. Integrated Methods for Elementary Teachers. (4) Lecture, four hours. Examination and development of instructional programs and analyses and practices of instructional methods for teaching K-6 content, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approach that integrates content areas and infuses literacy, technology, and strategies for second language learners. Aligned with California state frameworks and California content standards for grades K-12, including English Language Development Standards — all of which address needs and interests of diverse students. Letter grading.

318C. Integrated Methods for Elementary Teachers. (3) Lecture, three hours. Examination and development of instructional programs and analyses and practices of instructional methods for teaching K-6 content, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approach that integrates content areas and infuses literacy, technology, and strategies for second language learners. Aligned with California state frameworks and California content standards. Letter grading.

319. Mathematics Methods. (3) Lecture, three hours. Details of children’s mathematics thinking and use of that information as way to ground learning about teaching of mathematics. Letter grading.

320A-320B-320C. Secondary Content and Literacy Methods. (3-3-3) Lecture, three hours. Examination and development of instructional programs and analyses and practices of instructional methods for teaching content in grades 7-12. Emphasis on interdisciplinary approach that integrates content areas and infuses literacy, technology, and strategies for second language learners. Methods courses are aligned with California state frameworks and California content standards for grades K-12, including English Language Development Standards — all of which address needs and various interests of diverse students. Letter grading.

321A. Secondary Content and Literacy Methods in Ethnic Studies. (3) (Formerly numbered 321.) Lecture, three hours. Examination and development of instructional programs, analyses, and practices of instructional methods for teaching ethnic studies in grades 7 through 12, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approach that integrates content areas and infuses literacy, technology, and strategies for second language learners. Methods courses align with California state frameworks and California content standards for grades K through 12, including English Language Development Standards — all of which address needs and various interests of diverse students. Ethnic studies curriculum focuses on Chicano studies, African American/black studies, indigenous studies, Asian American studies, and gender/sexuality studies and how to develop curriculum focused on local histories in urban classrooms. S/U grading.

321B. Ethnic Studies Curriculum Development. (3) Lecture, three hours. Examination and development of theoretical frameworks around curriculum development for ethnic studies in grades 7 through 12, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approach that integrates content areas and infuses literacy, technology, and strategies for second language learners. Methods courses align with California state frameworks and California content standards for grades K through 12, including English Language Development Standards — all of which address needs and various interests of diverse students. Ethnic studies curriculum focuses on Chicano studies, African American/black studies, indigenous studies, Asian American studies, gender/sexuality studies, and how to develop curriculum focused on local histories in Los Angeles urban classrooms. S/U grading.

327. Principles and Methods for Teaching Spanish Effectively. (2 to 6) Lecture, two to six hours. Emphasis on proficiency-based foreign language teaching methods incorporating language assessment skills, modeling, hands-on experiences, and development of teaching and teacher-training materials. S/U grading.

328. Principles and Methods for Teaching Mandarin Effectively. (2 to 6) Lecture, two to six hours. Emphasis on proficiency-based foreign language teaching methods incorporating language assessment skills, modeling, hands-on experiences, and development of teaching and teacher-training materials. S/U grading.

330A. Observation and Participation. (2 to 6) Site-based fieldwork, 10 to 15 hours. Students are assigned to school sites with racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse student populations. Throughout observation and participation period, students analyze effective strategies for achieving learning for all students, including sociocultural approaches and appropriate use of educational technology. S/U grading.

330B. Student Teaching. (4 to 8) Site-based fieldwork, 10 to 20 hours. Requisite: course 330A. Students are assigned to student teach in designated school sites with racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse student populations. Throughout student teaching period, students as novice teachers plan, implement, and assess daily lessons and units, as well as actively engage in reflecting on issues specific to school/community relations. S/U grading.

330C. Student Teaching. (4 to 8) Site-based fieldwork, 10 to 30 hours. Requisite: course 330A. Students are assigned to student teach in designated school sites with racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse student populations. Throughout student teaching period, students as novice teachers plan, implement, and assess daily lessons and units, as well as actively engage in reflecting on issues specific to school/community relations. Increased daily responsibilities. S/U grading.

330D. Classroom Residency and Teaching. (4) Site-based fieldwork, 40 hours. Students are employed by local school districts to teach as residents in designated school sites with racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse student populations. Students also work in collaborative teams through Teacher Education Program to initiate change project in their local school and/or complete case study on project. S/U grading.

360A-360B-360C. Novice Seminars. (2-2-2) Seminar, two hours. Analysis of basic principles and concepts of planning, conducting, and evaluating units of curriculum and instruction. Emphasis on study and utilization of constructivist strategies and their application in elementary and secondary schools. Examination of different methods of computer literacy and teaching subject matter. Students may conduct ethnographic inquiry of local community of their designated partnership district. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

375. Teaching Apprentice Practicum. (1 to 4) Seminar, to be arranged. Preparation: apprentice personnel employment as teaching assistant, associate, or fellow. Teaching apprenticeship under active guidance and supervision of regular faculty member responsible for curriculum and instruction at UCLA. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

390A-390B-390C. Colloquium Series: Human Development and Psychology. (1-1-1) Seminar, one hour. Required of first-, second-, and third-year Human Development and Psychology (HDP) PhD students. Training to conduct research that has practical implications as well as theoretical significance within field of applied human development. Children’s cognitive, language, personality, and social development in educationally relevant settings such as schools and daycare programs. Series unites scholars exploring contemporary issues in applied human development and provides framework to facilitate research and training in human development within school and UCLA community, as well as forum to share information with other investigators and institutions. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

400. Foundations of Education Policy Analysis. (4) Lecture, four hours. Principles of decision making and policy formation, implementation, and analysis in context of educational system. Critical perspectives include effectiveness and equity of educational delivery systems and programs, and complex nature of educational governance in contemporary America. S/U or letter grading.

401. Structure and Functions of Schools as Complex Organizations. (4) Lecture, four hours. Critical analysis of alternative assumptions about organizations, how they function, and why people in organizations behave as they do. Application to special circumstances of schools and to contemporary issues and problems in school leadership, improvement, and reform. S/U or letter grading.

402. Curriculum Principles and Practices. (4) Lecture, four hours. Critical analysis of major concepts, underlying assumptions, policy issues, and processes in development and implementation of curriculum in educational setting. Problems in formulation of purposes, selection of learning experiences, organization of curriculum, and curriculum evaluation. S/U or letter grading.

403. Infant-Toddler Child Development and Care. (4) Lecture, four hours. Exploration of infant and toddler development (ages 0 to 3) and implications of development on their care and education. Introduction to major theories in child development, developmental milestones, and recent brain development research. Topics include family engagement, inclusion, risk contexts, developmentally appropriate practices, and assessment. S/U or letter grading.

404. Early Childhood Curriculum Approaches. (3) Lecture, three hours. Examination and development of curriculum models and methodological approaches used in early childhood education. Grounded in social justice in early childhood education, with focus on use of developmentally appropriate practices, play- and relationship-based approaches, inclusion, families, English language learners, and anti-bias curricula. S/U or letter grading.

405A-405B-405C. Teaching in Urban Schools. (2-2-2) Seminar, two hours. Limited to credential program students. Letter grading:

405A. Exploring Communities. (2) Seminar, two hours. Limited to credential program students. Learning about urban communities by critically examining students’s own beliefs, assumptions, and experiences about them to deepen understanding and appreciation about urban communities. Letter grading.

405B. Exploring Identities. (2) Seminar, two hours. Limited to credential program students. Examination and reflection on student values, beliefs, assumptions, and lives to determine how these factors shape way students view their world and, in particular, teaching, learning, students, their families, and their neighborhoods and communities. Letter grading.

405C. Exploring Family-School Connections. (2) Seminar, two hours. Limited to credential program students. Exploration of interrelationships among families, communities, and school systems, engaging parents, caregivers, guardians, students, and school personnel to develop strategies for working with families and to develop philosophy of education. Letter grading.

406. Social Foundations and Cultural Diversity in American Education. (3) Lecture, three hours. Intensive consideration of American society, particularly its racial and cultural diversity. Topics include historical development of American society, manifestations of cultures, and ways to learn about students’s cultures. Examination of issues of racism, ethnic and gender differences, perspectives of cultural diversity, and impact on educational and classroom instruction. Letter grading.

406B. Social Foundations and Cultural Diversity in American Education: Ethnic Studies Emphasis. (3) Lecture, three hours. Historical, social, political, and economic contexts of schooling in U.S., with special emphasis on perspectives and contributions from ethnic studies. Examination of central arguments centered around systemic processes, deficit-framing, meanings produced in cultural contexts, and agency and activism. Letter grading.

407. Psychological Foundations of Education. (3) Lecture, three hours. Analysis of learning processes in school situations. Processes of human motivation, affective, cognitive, social, and personal development of children and adolescents, evaluation of learning, individual differences, and implications of relevant theory and research. Letter grading.

408B-408U. Language and Culture. (2 each) Lecture, two hours. Exploration of complex nature of culture and impact of cultural diversity in urban classroom through class discussions, activities, and reflective expression, allowing novice teachers to understand and participate in rich cultural diversity of urban Los Angeles. By exploring culture as tool and target for increasing understanding of multicultural diversity, teachers may construct meaningful connections to students, communities, and home cultures. Each course may be taken independently for credit. Letter grading. 408B. Latino/Latina Emphasis; 408C. Asian American Emphasis; 408D. African American Emphasis. 408U. General Topics.

409. Language Structure, Acquisition, and Development. (3) Lecture, three hours. Theoretical foundations of language structure and first and second language acquisition, with focus on major themes of current research that provide framework for schooling of English language learners. Rationale for bilingual/English language acquisition and development programs. Historical and current theories and models of language. Letter grading.

410A-410B. Issues in Higher Education and K-12. (4-4) Lecture, four hours. Two-course sequence providing overview of higher education systems. Letter grading. 410A. Designed to develop knowledge, understanding, and sensitivity to contemporary critical and emerging issues that impact higher education, with focus on both theory and practice. Study of relationships between issues in K-12 schooling and higher education. 410B. Exploration of issues that effect both higher education and K-12 schooling, including restructuring and reform, standards, access and accountability, and new technologies. Emphasis on both theory and practice.

411. Procedural Issues in Evaluation. (4) Lecture, four hours. Assessment methodologies appropriate for evaluation problems. Writing evaluation proposals, developing program monitoring procedures, selecting appropriate evaluation design strategies, coping with ethical considerations in evaluation, framing decision context, and reporting evaluation results. Letter grading.

412. Why Research Matters to Student Affairs Practice. (3 or 4) Lecture, three hours. How do researchers study impact of college on students? How can that research be used to improve student affairs practice? Introduction to world of college impact research and orientation to major ongoing studies conducted at UCLA and beyond. Students interact with researchers and provide input on how research results might be utilized to improve work of student affairs. Letter grading.

413A. Language and Culture. (2 to 4) Lecture, two hours. Limited to credential program students. Offered and required for Bilingual Authorization Programs. Focus on language of emphasis for bilingual teachers. Practice in listening, reading, speaking, and writing competencies required for bilingual classrooms. Assessment made at end of course to determine proficiency of Bilingual Authorization Program candidates. Letter grading.

413B. Methodology for Primary Language Instruction. (2 to 4) Lecture, three hours. Offered and required for Bilingual Authorization Programs. Consideration of models for developing cultural and language skills of home speakers of language of emphasis; practice in use of activities to develop student ability to use language for real-world and academic purposes in culturally appropriate ways. Consideration of models for teaching academic content in primary language for delivery of core curriculum to bilingual students. Letter grading.

413C. Culture of Emphasis. (2 to 4) Lecture, three hours. Offered and required for Bilingual Authorization Programs. Conducted in language of authorization. Discussion of commonalities of culture of emphasis in its home country or countries; major historical periods and events; values, belief systems, and expectations; migration and immigration; historical and contemporary demography. Letter grading.

414A. Student Affairs Practice and Theory. (3) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Examination of needs for student affairs services, range of services, their philosophical and empirical rationale, and their organization and evaluation to provide knowledge base for developing theories of practice. Ongoing involvement in cooperative learning project to examine these issues both as team members and as individuals. Offered in summer only. Letter grading.

414B. Legal and Ethical Issues in Student Affairs. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Examination of legal and ethical issues that affect student affairs practices in higher education. Letter grading.

414C. College Student Counseling. (3) Lecture, three hours. Overview of counseling at college counseling centers. Review of historical context, philosophical and practical bases, organization and administration, specific programs, and contemporary issues and trends in college student counseling. Letter grading.

414D. Career Development and Interventions in Colleges. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory, one hour. Examination of challenges faced by college students of all ages in preparing for careers in dynamic multicultural world economy and interventions for assisting them. Emphasis on understanding development and evaluation of interventions. Letter grading.

414E. Administration of Student Affairs. (3) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Overview of general knowledge and processes essential to effectively administer programs or services under student affairs. Examination of relationship between environmental factors and strategies for governing, planning, and managing student affairs programs and services. Offered in summer only. Letter grading.

415A. Assessment in Counseling Psychology. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 218, 230A. Overview of rationale for and procedures used by counseling psychologists for assessing individuals in multicultural society. Emphasis on standardized cognitive assessment instruments and specialized techniques for diagnosis, evaluation, and development of counseling strategies for at-risk populations. S/U or letter grading.

415B. Advanced Assessment in Counseling Psychology. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 415A. Advanced course in assessment for counseling psychologists. Survey and demonstration of instruments of achievement, affective, and personality appraisal, with emphasis on testing and interplay between assessment and psychological functioning for reducing risks of failure in academic, personal, and social areas. S/U or letter grading.

416. Program Development and Planning in Student Affairs. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Planning of programs that provide or support learning for individuals and groups in student affairs context. Examination of philosophical foundations of program planning, along with pedagogical and logistical dimensions of program development. Letter grading.

417. Program Evaluation and Assessment in Student Affairs. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Introduction to assessment and program evaluation in context of student affairs and higher education. Examination of usefulness and appropriateness of various program evaluation methodologies and theories of assessment practice. Letter grading.

418. Group Dynamics in Student Affairs. (3) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Group productivity, leadership in groups, social perception, attitude formation, and effect of behavior changes in individuals and groups. Evaluation of social, psychological, and educational principles related to experiences of individuals in small groups. Letter grading.

419. Introduction to Research in Student Affairs. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Designed to orient students to nature of educational research in context of student affairs. Overview of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods to position students as scholar-practitioners. Exposure to these methods supplemented by examination of how they are used in published research relevant to practice of student affairs. Letter grading.

420A. Principles of Curriculum. (4) Lecture, four hours. Critical examination of basic concepts underlying determination of objectives, selection and organization of learning experiences, and evaluation process. S/U or letter grading.

421A. Programs and Research in Early Childhood Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Preparation: one course from development series. Examination of child care programs and research in early childhood education, including review of relation of research in developmental psychology and education to goals of early childhood education and day care. S/U or letter grading.

421D. Parents and Community Agents in Child Development. (4) Lecture, four hours. Preparation: one course from development series. Critical review of theoretical basis and effectiveness of training programs for parents of young and elementary school-aged children; relation of preschool parent programs to family development and role of programs in community. S/U or letter grading.

421F. Issues in Application of Child Development and Educational Research to Social Policy. (4) Lecture, four hours. Relationships among policymakers and social scientists in development, implementation, and evaluation of policies affecting children and their families. Students learn to design and conduct interviews, analyze legislative documents, and present analyses to policymakers. S/U or letter grading.

422. Inquiry into Schooling: Basic Issues. (4) Lecture, four hours. Critical examination of basic issues and problems in organization and reconstruction of precollegiate schooling. Consideration of historical development and changing functions of schooling in American society; school organization; schooling alternatives; problems in management of educational change. S/U or letter grading.

423. Humanistic Curriculum. (4) Lecture, four hours. Consideration of philosophical and cultural foundations of humanistic curricular strategies. Review of techniques and procedures of affective education with view to their place in overall theory of teaching and learning. S/U or letter grading.

424A. Social Studies in Curriculum. (4) Lecture, four hours. Advanced study in social studies curriculum development; problems in defining objectives and organizing single and multidisciplinary programs; critical review of literature on cognitive and affective learning in social science, with emphasis on experimental study of instructional programs. S/U or letter grading.

424B. Reading in Curriculum. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 230A. Study of reading curricula and instructional procedures, with emphasis on rationale and research underlying their development and research comparing their effectiveness. S/U or letter grading.

424G. Curriculum Design for Bilingual Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Advanced study of curriculum design for bilingual educational programs. Philosophical basis for bilingual programs; theories of learning and instruction applied to bilingual learner; language assessment; development of instructional component; program evaluation. S/U or letter grading.

425. Principles for Teaching Exceptional Individuals. (3) Lecture, three hours. Approaches for teaching exceptional individuals in special and regular education programs. Principles and assumptions underlying alternative approaches. Emphasis on individualizing curriculum and classroom management. Letter grading.

426A-426B. Program Development and Program Evaluation in Student Affairs. (2-2) Lecture, two hours. Introduction to program development and planning, as well as to assessment and program review. Development of knowledge of and skill in planning educational and training programs that provide support for learning within context of student affairs, as well as knowledge of and skill in developing, implementing, and analyzing assessment projects within student affairs context. Study of basic theoretical perspectives underlying program design/implementation and program review/assessment and application by developing, implementing, and assessing effectiveness of one program. In Progress (426A) and letter (426B) grading.

431A. Administration in Higher Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Overview of college and university administration and introduction to policy research and analysis in postsecondary institutions. Case studies of administrative problems, policies, and practices. Management information systems, resource allocation, and issues related to responsibility, authority, and participation in administrative decisions. S/U or letter grading.

431B. Curriculum and Instruction in Higher Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Principles of curriculum and instruction in postsecondary programs. Theory and practices in goal setting, testing, media selection, and related instructional responsibilities. Preparing to teach college-level students. S/U or letter grading.

432. Seminar: Professional Topics in Higher Education. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

433A. Design of Learning Environments. (4) Discussion, four hours. Theory and practice of design of technology-supported learning environments. Examination of how theories of learning guide design and enactment of learning environments in classrooms and informal settings and how research on such environments informs theory and design. Letter grading.

433B. Development of Educational Media. (4) Discussion, four hours. Current issues and trends in design of interactive educational media. Design and development of prototype educational media applications, integration plans for established or experimental educational media into formal learning settings, or evaluations of specific learning environments. Letter grading.

440C. Administration of Instructional Programs. (4) Lecture, four hours. Examination of current educational problems in society and strategies of their solution through curriculum policy and practice; instructional design and operation; in-service training of teaching staffs. S/U or letter grading.

441A. Instructional Supervision A. (4) Lecture, four hours. Analysis of teaching in light of research-substantiated elements of instruction: task analysis, appropriate objectives, principles that increase motivation, rate and degree of learning, retention and transfer, monitoring and adjusting instruction to meet needs and capacities of learners. S/U or letter grading.

441B. Instructional Supervision B. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 441A. Basic techniques of script-taping instructional episodes, planning teacher conferences through analysis of script-tapes, conducting and analyzing growth-evoking teacher conferences. Conducting mini-lessons to demonstrate elements of good instruction. S/U or letter grading.

442B. Legal Aspects of Educational Management and Practice. (4) Lecture, four hours. Examination of structures and kinds of law governing educational systems in U.S.; constitutional dimensions of church/state relations; employees’s civil rights and legal aspects of hiring, firing, and negotiating procedures; student attendance, control, and civil rights. S/U or letter grading.

443. Policy Analysis in Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Overview of political, economic, and legal context of educational policy formation. Included in examination are issues that impact on minorities (e.g., bilingual education, desegregation, affirmative action, role of subdominants in policy-making process). S/U or letter grading.

444B. Equality of Educational Opportunity through Desegregation and Finance Case Law. (4) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 442B. Concentrated review of definition of equality of educational opportunity as it is being developed by courts in cases concerning desegregation and educational finance. S/U or letter grading.

447. Seminar: Educational Policy and Planning, Special Studies. (1 to 4) Seminar, one to four hours. S/U or letter grading.

448A. Urban School Leadership. (4) Lecture, four hours. Analysis of problems of urban school leadership. Emphasis on changing nature of urban principalship, with considerable attention to role of other school and community agencies that interact with urban school leaders. S/U or letter grading.

448B. Urban Leadership Laboratory. (4) Laboratory, four hours. Analysis of and opportunity to practice human and technical skills requisite for success as urban school leader. Topics include negotiations, conflict resolution, applied computer technology, and effective communication. Activities include gaming, simulation, computer programming, and group dynamics. S/U or letter grading.

450. Leadership Capacity Building. (4) Lecture, one hour; discussion, three hours. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Course taken in year three of Educational Leadership Program to help students with their communication and leadership capacities. S/U grading.

451. Foundations of Organizations and Leadership. (4) Lecture, four hours. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Promotion of understanding of traditional and contemporary conceptions of leadership and organizational theory, with application of these conceptions to student professional work settings. Letter grading.

452A-452B. Educational Enterprise. (4-4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Use of structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frames to study K-16 education. Letter grading. 452A. Focus on purposes of education governance, finance, access, and equity. 452B. Requisite: course 452A. Focus on educational environments, organizations, and curriculum and instruction.

453. Technology in Education: Learning and Leading with Technology. (2) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Examination of roles of technology in educational institutions and leadership issues associated with these roles. Letter grading.

454A. Action Research: Collaboration in Change. (4) Lecture, one hour; discussion, two hours; small group work, one hour. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Students carry out full cycle of action research at educational site. Projects done in teams as students hone and assess their collaboration abilities. Exploration of qualitative and quantitative data gathering methods and analyses. Letter grading.

454B. Action Research: Collaboration in Change. (4) Lecture, one hour; discussion, two hours; small group work, one hour. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Second course in two-course sequence on learning how to do and use action research. Honing of team processes and team roles while collaborating on data collection and analysis at educational site. Letter grading.

455. Writing and Inquiry. (4) Lecture/workshop, eight hours per month; discussion, one hour; laboratory, one hour. Limited to doctoral students in Educational Leadership Program. Intended to assist students’s professional development as writers, addressing style and organization, scholarly genres, modes of discourse, and broader issues of conceptualization and method. Letter grading.

456. Altering Structure and Culture of Schooling. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, four hours. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Using applied orientation, examination of variety of approaches to organizational change and ways to sustain change. Letter grading.

457. Student Development across K-16 Spectrum. (4) Discussion, four hours. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Theories of student development applicable to K-12 and postsecondary education. Focus on educational influences on self and others. Letter grading.

458A-458B-458C. Practicum: Dissertation. (2-2-2) Seminar, two hours; discussion, two hours. Preparation: completion of first- and second-year courses. Limited to Educational Leadership Program students. Development of EdD dissertation and its implementation to improve educational practice. Letter grading.

460. Seminar: Special Issues in Evaluation. (2 or 4) Seminar, one or two hours; discussion, one or two hours. Topics and instructors vary each term. Recent emphases included evaluation utilization and cost-effectiveness evaluation. S/U or letter grading.

462. Seminar: Community College. (4) Seminar, four hours. Topics include problems and practices in community college formation, instruction, student flow, administration, and/or evaluation. S/U or letter grading.

466. Critical Media Literacy: Teaching Youth to Critically Read and Create Media. (4) Lecture, four hours. Preparation for educators to teach K-12 students to explore their relationships with media by critically questioning media representations and creating their own alternative media messages. Critical media literacy combines theoretical foundations of cultural studies and critical pedagogy with practical classroom applications of new digital media as well as traditional print-based means of communication. Exploration of media representations of race, class, gender, sexual orientation, and other identity markers. Educators critically question media and technology, as well as explore new alternatives for creating multimedia messages in their own classrooms. Analysis and creation of media projects related to teaching required. Letter grading.

470A. Seminar: Large Systems and Individual Schools. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

470B. Seminar: Educational Government. (4) Seminar, four hours. S/U or letter grading.

481. Knowledge and Inquiry in Classroom. (4) Lecture, four hours. Logical features of instruction and their application to inquiry techniques in teaching and learning. Various conceptions of truth, belief, and fact and opinion, and their application to classroom learning situations. S/U or letter grading.

482A. Instructional Strategies in Urban Education: Technology. (4) Lecture, four hours. Emphasis on instructional practices that integrate use of technology in urban public schools. Study and analysis of comprehensive specialized use of appropriate computer-based technology to facilitate teaching and learning process, and debriefing of field experiences integrating technology-related tools. Letter grading.

482B. Instructional Strategies in Urban Education: English Language Learners. (4) Lecture, four hours. Emphasis on instructional practices that support English language learners in urban public schools. Study and analysis of delivery of comprehensive specialized instruction for English learners and debriefing of field experiences implementing adopted instructional programs for development of academic language, comprehension, and knowledge in core academic curriculum. Letter grading.

482C. Instructional Strategies in Urban Education: Special Populations. (4) Lecture, four hours. Emphasis on instructional practices that support special populations in urban public schools. Continuation of study of statutory provisions, curriculum, instruction, and assessment issues related to teaching students with disabilities, students who are at risk, and students who are gifted and talented. Research opportunities, additional methods in content areas for advanced study, and preparation of MEd inquiry included. Letter grading.

482D. Instructional Strategies in Urban Education: Visual and Performing Arts. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Emphasis on instructional practices that integrate visual and performing arts into urban classrooms. Debriefing of field experiences implementing subject-centered arts instruction, instruction connecting arts disciplines, and instruction connecting arts and other core disciplines. Advanced exploration of elements of each art form, as well as content and emotional scaffolding strategies and reflection strategies to make learning accessible, engaging, and relevant. Letter grading.

485. Advanced Study of Health Education. (1) Lecture, four hours. Student meetings with instructors, field specialists, and team cohorts to study and analyze delivery of comprehensive support for physical, cognitive, emotional, and social well-being of students in K-12 classrooms. Topics include prevention and intervention strategies, accessing local and community resources, curriculum and instruction, and major state and federal laws related to student health and safety. Letter grading.

489. Instructional Strategies in Education. (4) Lecture, four hours. Methods for academic instruction, including research and active participation in adversary approach, forms of debate, role playing, interaction process analysis, and feedback instruments. Practical emphasis on social sciences and humanities instruction, K-12. S/U or letter grading.

490A. Instructional Decision Making. (4) Lecture, four hours. Analysis of instructional models relevant to public school education. Assumptions, procedures, and constraints of each strategy considered in terms of learner and task variables. Laboratory experiences in classroom settings permit students systematically to apply and evaluate alternative instructional strategies. S/U or letter grading.

491. Curricular Decision Making. (4) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Examination of alternative solutions for practical problems that classroom teachers face in making curricular decisions. Analysis of influences of psychological, societal, and institutional factors in curricular decisions. Letter grading.

492. Evaluation of Teaching and Learning. (4) Lecture, four hours. Relationship between appraisal instruments and information required for making decisions about teachers, pupils, and materials. Recent developments in evaluation of teaching and learning; use of modern appraisal techniques in classroom settings. S/U or letter grading.

495A-495B-495C. Resident Seminars. (4-4-4) Seminar, two hours; site-based fieldwork, two hours. Students meet in individual sessions with instructors and other field support faculty and in team and cluster cohorts for university-school partnership, in addition to regular seminars to debrief field experiences and continue study of curriculum, instruction, and assessment issues. Research opportunities, additional methods in content areas, and preparation of MEd portfolio included. Letter grading.

498A-498B-498C. Directed Field Experience. (2 to 8 each) Clinical, to be arranged. Field experiences designed to increase understanding of student fields of study. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

499A-499B-499C. Advanced Directed Field Experience. (4 to 8 each) Clinical, to be arranged. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

501. Cooperative Program in Special Education. (2 to 8) Tutorial, to be arranged. Preparation: consent of UCLA academic adviser and graduate dean, and host campus instructor, department chair, and graduate dean. Limited to UCLA doctoral students in special education. Used to record enrollment in practicum courses taken under cooperative arrangements with USC. S/U grading.

596. Directed Independent Study. (1 to 12) Tutorial, to be arranged (one hour per unit). Individual study or research for graduate students. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

597. Preparation for Master’s Comprehensive Examinations or Doctoral Qualifying Examinations. (1 to 12) Tutorial, to be arranged. Individual study for master’s comprehensive examinations or for PhD or EdD qualifying examinations. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

598. Thesis Research. (4 to 12) Tutorial, to be arranged (four hours for every 4 units). Research for and preparation of master’s thesis. May be taken for maximum of 12 units. S/U grading.

599. Dissertation Research. (4 to 12) Tutorial, to be arranged (four hours for every 4 units). Research for and preparation of doctoral dissertation. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.