# Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Upper-Division Courses

101. Statics and Strength of Materials. (4) (Formerly numbered 96.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: Mathematics 31A, 31B, Physics 1A. Review of vector representation of forces, resultant force and moment, equilibrium of concurrent and nonconcurrent forces. Area moments and products of inertia. Support reactions, free-body diagrams. Forces in simple models of mechanical and aerospace structures. Internal forces in beams, shear and moment diagrams. Stress and strain components in solids, equilibrium equations, Hooke’s law for isotropic solids. Bending and shear stresses in beams. Deflection of symmetric beams and indeterminate problems. Stresses in thin-walled pressure vessels and in circular cylinders under torsion. Letter grading.

102. Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: course 101, Mathematics 33A, Physics 1A. Fundamental concepts of Newtonian mechanics. Kinematics and kinetics of particles and rigid bodies in two and three dimensions. Impulse-momentum and work-energy relationships. Applications. Letter grading.

103. Elementary Fluid Mechanics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: Mathematics 32B, 33A, Physics 1B. Introductory course dealing with application of principles of mechanics to flow of compressible and incompressible fluids. Letter grading.

105A. Introduction to Engineering Thermodynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: Chemistry 20B, Mathematics 32B. Phenomenological thermodynamics. Concepts of equilibrium, temperature, and reversibility. First law and concept of energy; second law and concept of entropy. Equations of state and thermodynamic properties. Engineering applications of these principles in analysis and design of closed and open systems. Letter grading.

105D. Transport Phenomena. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 82, 103, 105A. Transport phenomena; heat conduction, mass species diffusion, convective heat and mass transfer, and radiation. Engineering applications in thermal and environmental control. Letter grading.

107. Introduction to Modeling and Analysis of Dynamic Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory, two hours; outside study, five hours. Enforced requisites: courses M20 (or Computer Science 31), 82, Electrical Engineering 100. Introduction to modeling of physical systems, with examples of mechanical, fluid, thermal, and electrical systems. Description of these systems with coverage of impulse response, convolution, frequency response, first- and second-order system transient response analysis, and numerical solution. Nonlinear differential equation descriptions with discussion of equilibrium solutions, small signal linearization, large signal response. Block diagram representation and response of interconnections of systems. Hands-on experiments reinforce lecture material. Letter grading.

131A. Intermediate Heat Transfer. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisites: courses M20 (or Civil Engineering M20 or Computer Science 31), 82, 105D. Steady conduction: two-sided, two-ended, tapered, and circular fins; buried cylinders, thick fins. Transient conduction: slabs, cylinders, products. Convection: transpiration, laminar pipe flow, film condensation, boundary layers, dimensional analysis, working correlation, surface radiation. Two-stream heat exchangers. Elements of thermal design. Letter grading.

133A. Engineering Thermodynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 103, 105A. Applications of thermodynamic principles to engineering processes. Energy conversion systems. Rankine cycle and other cycles, refrigeration, psychrometry, reactive and nonreactive fluid flow systems. Elements of thermodynamic design. Letter grading.

135. Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and Engineering. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: course 82, Chemistry 20A. Review of nuclear physics, radioactivity and decay, and radiation interaction with matter. Nuclear fission and fusion processes and mass defect, chain reactions, criticality, neutron diffusion and multiplication, heat transfer issues, and applications. Introduction to nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production, space power, spacecraft propulsion, nuclear fusion, and nuclear science for medical uses. Letter grading.

136. Energy and Environment. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course 105A. Global energy use and supply, electrical power generation, fossil fuel and nuclear power plants, renewable energy such as hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar, wind, and ocean, fuel cells, transportation, energy conservation, air and water pollution, global warming. Letter grading.

C137. Design and Analysis of Smart Grids. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Demand response; transactive/price-based load control; home-area network, smart energy profile; advanced metering infrastructure; renewable energy integration; solar and wind generation intermittency and correction; microgrids; grid stability; energy storage and electric vehicles-simulation; monitoring; distribution and transmission grids; consumer-centric technologies; sensors, communications, and computing; wireless, wireline, and powerline communications for smart grids; grid modeling, stability, and control; frequency and voltage regulation; ancillary services; wide-area situational awareness, phasor measurements; analytical methods and tools for monitoring and control. Concurrently scheduled with course C237. Letter grading.

CM140. Introduction to Biomechanics. (4) (Same as Bioengineering CM140.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 101, 102, and 156A or 166A. Introduction to mechanical functions of human body; skeletal adaptations to optimize load transfer, mobility, and function. Dynamics and kinematics. Fluid mechanics applications. Heat and mass transfer. Power generation. Laboratory simulations and tests. Concurrently scheduled with course CM240. Letter grading.

CM141. Mechanics of Cells. (4) (Same as Bioengineering CM141.) Lecture, four hours. Introduction to physical structures of cell biology and physical principles that govern how they function mechanically. Review and application of continuum mechanics and statistical mechanics to develop quantitative mathematical models of structural mechanics in cells. Structure of macromolecules, polymers as entropic springs, random walks and diffusion, mechanosensitive proteins, single-molecule force-extension, DNA packing and transcriptional regulation, lipid bilayer membranes, mechanics of cytoskeleton, molecular motors, biological electricity, muscle mechanics, pattern formation. Concurrently scheduled with course CM241. Letter grading.

150A. Intermediate Fluid Mechanics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisites: courses 82, 103. Basic equations governing fluid motion. Fundamental solutions of Navier/Stokes equations. Lubrication theory. Elementary potential flow theory. Boundary layers. Turbulent flow in pipes and boundary layers. Compressible flow: normal shocks, channel flow with friction or heat addition. Letter grading.

150B. Aerodynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 103, 150A. Advanced aspects of potential flow theory. Incompressible flow around thin airfoils (lift and moment coefficients) and wings (lift, induced drag). Gas dynamics: oblique shocks, Prandtl/Meyer expansion. Linearized subsonic and supersonic flow around thin airfoils and wings. Wave drag. Transonic flow. Letter grading.

150C. Combustion Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisites: courses 103, 105A. Chemical thermodynamics of ideal gas mixtures, premixed and diffusion flames, explosions and detonations, combustion chemistry, high explosives. Combustion processes in rocket, turbine, and internal combustion engines; heating applications. Letter grading.

C150G. Fluid Dynamics of Biological Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 103. Mechanics of aquatic locomotion; insect and bird flight aerodynamics; pulsatile flow in circulatory system; rheology of blood; transport in microcirculation; role of fluid dynamics in arterial diseases. Concurrently scheduled with course C250G. Letter grading.

C150P. Aircraft Propulsion Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 105A, 150A. Thermodynamic properties of gases, aircraft jet engine cycle analysis and component performance, component matching, advanced aircraft engine topics. Concurrently scheduled with course C250P. Letter grading.

C150R. Rocket Propulsion Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisites: courses 103, 105A. Rocket propulsion concepts, including chemical rockets (liquid, gas, and solid propellants), hybrid rocket engines, electric (ion, plasma) rockets, nuclear rockets, and solar-powered vehicles. Current issues in launch vehicle technologies. Concurrently scheduled with course C250R. Letter grading.

153A. Engineering Acoustics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Designed for junior/senior engineering majors. Fundamental course in acoustics; propagation of sound; sources of sound. Design of field measurements. Estimation of jet and blade noise with design aspects. Letter grading.

154A. Preliminary Design of Aircraft. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisite: course 154S. Classical preliminary design of aircraft, including weight estimation, performance and stability, and control consideration. Term assignment consists of preliminary design of low-speed aircraft. Letter grading.

154B. Design of Aerospace Structures. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 154A, 166A. Design of aircraft, helicopter, spacecraft, and related structures. External loads, internal stresses. Applied theory of thin-walled structures. Material selection, design using composite materials. Design for fatigue prevention and structural optimization. Field trips to aerospace companies. Letter grading.

154S. Flight Mechanics, Stability, and Control of Aircraft. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: courses 150A, 150B. Aircraft performance, flight mechanics, stability, and control; some basic ingredients needed for design of aircraft. Effects of airplane flexibility on stability derivatives. Letter grading.

155. Intermediate Dynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: course 102. Axioms of Newtonian mechanics, generalized coordinates, Lagrange equation, variational principles; central force motion; kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies. Euler equations, motion of rotating bodies, oscillatory motion, normal coordinates, orthogonality relations. Letter grading.

156A. Advanced Strength of Materials. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 82, 101. Not open to students with credit for course 166A. Concepts of stress, strain, and material behavior. Stresses in loaded beams with symmetric and asymmetric cross sections. Torsion of cylinders and thin-walled structures, shear flow. Stresses in pressure vessels, press-fit and shrink-fit problems, rotating shafts. Curved beams. Contact stresses. Strength and failure, plastic deformation, fatigue, elastic instability. Letter grading.

C156B. Mechanical Design for Power Transmission. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 156A or 166A. Material selection in mechanical design. Load and stress analysis. Deflection and stiffness. Failure due to static loading. Fatigue failure. Design for safety factors and reliability. Applications of failure prevention in design of power transmission shafting. Design project involving computer-aided design (CAD) and finite element analysis (FEA) modeling. Concurrently scheduled with course C296A. Letter grading.

157. Basic Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Laboratory. (4) Laboratory, eight hours; outside study, four hours. Requisites: courses 101, 102, 103, 105A, Electrical Engineering 100. Methods of measurement of basic quantities and performance of basic experiments in fluid mechanics, structures, and thermodynamics. Primary sensors, transducers, recording equipment, signal processing, and data analysis. Letter grading.

157A. Aerospace Design Laboratory. (4) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours; outside study, four hours. Requisites: courses 150A, 157. Recommended: 150B, C150R. Experimental illustration of important physical phenomena in area of fluid mechanics/aerodynamics, as well as hands-on experience with design of experimental programs and use of modern experimental tools and techniques in field. Letter grading.

161A. Introduction to Astronautics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course 102. Recommended: course 82. Spaceflight, including two-body and three-body problem, Kepler laws, and Keplerian orbits. Ground track and taxonomy of common orbits. Orbital and transfer maneuvers, patched conics, perturbation theory, low-thrust trajectories, spacecraft pointing, and spacecraft attitude control. Space mission design, space environment, rendezvous, reentry, and launch. Letter grading.

161B. Introduction to Space Technology. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Recommended preparation: courses 102, 161A. Spacecraft systems and dynamics, including spacecraft power, instruments, communications, structures, materials, thermal control, and attitude/orbit determination and control. Space mission design, launch vehicles/considerations, space propulsion. Letter grading.

161C. Spacecraft Design. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisite: course 161B. Preliminary design and analysis by students of Earth-orbiting or interplanetary space missions and spacecraft. Students work in groups of three or four, with each student responsible primarily for one subsystem and for integration with whole. Letter grading.

161D. Space Technology Hardware Design. (4) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, four hours. Enforced requisite: course 161B. Design by students of hardware with applications to space technology. Designs are then built by HSSEAS professional machine shop and tested by students. Letter grading.

162A. Introduction to Mechanisms and Mechanical Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisites: courses M20 (or Computer Science 31), 102. Analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and mechanical systems. Kinematics, dynamics, and mechanical advantages of machinery. Displacement velocity and acceleration analyses of linkages. Fundamental law of gearing and various gear trains. Computer-aided mechanism design and analysis. Letter grading.

162D. Mechanical Engineering Design I. (4) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisites: courses 94, 156A (or 183A or M183B), 162A (or 171A). Limited to seniors. First of two mechanical engineering capstone design courses. Lectures on engineering project management, design of thermal systems, mechatronics, mechanical systems, and mechanical components. Students work in teams to begin their two-term design project. Laboratory modules include CAD design, CAD analysis, mechatronics, and conceptual design for team project. Letter grading.

162E. Mechanical Engineering Design II. (4) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course 162D. Limited to seniors. Second of two mechanical engineering capstone design courses. Student groups continue design projects started in course 162D, making use of CAD design laboratory, CAD analysis laboratory, and mechatronics laboratory. Design theory, design tools, economics, marketing, manufacturability, quality, intellectual property, design for manufacture and assembly, design for safety and reliability, and engineering ethics. Students conduct hands-on design, fabrication, and testing. Culminating project demonstrations or competition. Preparation of design project presentations in both oral and written formats. Letter grading.

166A. Analysis of Aerospace Structures. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 82, 101. Not open to students with credit for course 156A. Introduction to two-dimensional elasticity, stress-strain laws, yield and fatigue; bending of beams; torsion of beams; warping; torsion of thin-walled cross sections: shear flow, shear-lag; combined bending torsion of thin-walled, stiffened structures used in aerospace vehicles; elements of plate theory; buckling of columns. Letter grading.

166C. Design of Composite Structures. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course 156A or 166A. History of composites, stress-strain relations for composite materials, bending and extension of symmetric laminates, failure analysis, design examples and design studies, buckling of composite components, nonsymmetric laminates, micromechanics of composites. Letter grading.

M168. Introduction to Finite Element Methods. (4) (Same as Civil Engineering M135C.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisite: course 156A or 166A or Civil Engineering 130. Introduction to basic concepts of finite element methods (FEM) and applications to structural and solid mechanics and heat transfer. Direct matrix structural analysis; weighted residual, least squares, and Ritz approximation methods; shape functions; convergence properties; isoparametric formulation of multidimensional heat flow and elasticity; numerical integration. Practical use of FEM software; geometric and analytical modeling; preprocessing and postprocessing techniques; term projects with computers. Letter grading.

169A. Introduction to Mechanical Vibrations. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 101, 102, 107. Fundamentals of vibration theory and applications. Free, forced, and transient vibration of one and two degrees of freedom systems, including damping. Normal modes, coupling, and normal coordinates. Vibration isolation devices, vibrations of continuous systems. Letter grading.

171A. Introduction to Feedback and Control Systems: Dynamic Systems Control I. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course 107. Introduction to feedback principles, control systems design, and system stability. Modeling of physical systems in engineering and other fields; transform methods; controller design using Nyquist, Bode, and root locus methods; compensation; computer-aided analysis and design. Letter grading.

171B. Digital Control of Physical Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course 171A or Electrical Engineering 141. Analysis and design of digital control systems. Sampling theory. Z-transformation. Discrete-time system representation. Design using classical methods: performance specifications, root locus, frequency response, loop-shaping compensation. Design using state-space methods: state feedback, state estimator, state estimator feedback control. Simulation of sampled data systems and practical aspects: roundoff errors, sampling rate selection, computation delay. Letter grading.

172. Control System Design Laboratory. (4) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course 171A. Introduction to loop shaping controller design with application to laboratory electromechanical systems. Power spectrum models of noise and disturbances, and performance trade-offs imposed by conflicting requirements. Constraints on sensitivity function and complementary sensitivity function imposed by nonminimum phase plants. Lecture topics supported by weekly hands-on laboratory work. Letter grading.

174. Probability and Its Applications to Risk, Reliability, and Quality Control. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: Mathematics 33A. Introduction to probability theory; random variables, distributions, functions of random variables, models of failure of components, reliability, redundancy, complex systems, stress-strength models, fault tree analysis, statistical quality control by variables and by attributes, acceptance sampling. Letter grading.

C175A. Probability and Stochastic Processes in Dynamical Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisites: courses 82, 107. Probability spaces, random variables, stochastic sequences and processes, expectation, conditional expectation, Gauss/Markov sequences, and minimum variance estimator (Kalman filter) with applications. Concurrently scheduled with course C271A. Letter grading.

181A. Complex Analysis and Integral Transforms. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisite: course 82. Complex variables, analytic functions, conformal mapping, contour integrals, singularities, residues, Cauchy integrals; Laplace transform: properties, convolution, inversion; Fourier transform: properties, convolution, FFT, applications in dynamics, vibrations, structures, and heat conduction. Letter grading.

182B. Mathematics of Engineering. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisite: course 82. Analytical methods for solving partial differential equations arising in engineering. Separation of variables, eigenvalue problems, Sturm/Liouville theory. Development and use of special functions. Representation by means of orthonormal functions; Galerkin method. Use of Green’s function and transform methods. Letter grading.

182C. Numerical Methods for Engineering Applications. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Enforced requisites: courses M20 (or Civil Engineering M20 or Computer Science 31), 82. Basic topics from numerical analysis having wide application in solution of practical engineering problems, computer arithmetic, and errors. Solution of linear and nonlinear systems. Algebraic eigenvalue problem. Least-square methods, numerical quadrature, and finite difference approximations. Numerical solution of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations. Letter grading.

183A. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes. (4) (Formerly numbered 183.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, five hours. Enforced requisite: Materials Science 104. Manufacturing fundamentals. Materials in manufacturing. Solidification processes. Metal forming processes. Material removal processes. Welding/joining. Rapid prototyping. Electronics manufacturing. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanotechnology. Letter grading.

M183B. Introduction to Microscale and Nanoscale Manufacturing. (4) (Same as Bioengineering M153, Chemical Engineering M153, and Electrical and Computer Engineering M153.) Lecture, three hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, five hours. Enforced requisites: Chemistry 20A, Physics 1A, 1B, 1C, 4AL, 4BL. Introduction to general manufacturing methods, mechanisms, constrains, and microfabrication and nanofabrication. Focus on concepts, physics, and instruments of various microfabrication and nanofabrication techniques that have been broadly applied in industry and academia, including various photolithography technologies, physical and chemical deposition methods, and physical and chemical etching methods. Hands-on experience for fabricating microstructures and nanostructures in modern cleanroom environment. Letter grading.

C183C. Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing. (4) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course 183A. Rapid prototyping (RP), solid freeform fabrication, or additive manufacturing has emerged as popular manufacturing technology to accelerate product creation in last two decades. Machine for layered manufacturing builds parts directly from CAD models. This novel manufacturing technology enables building of parts that have traditionally been impossible to fabricate because of their complex shapes or of variety in materials. In analogy to speed and flexibility of desktop publishing, rapid prototyping is also called desktop manufacturing, with actual three-dimensional solid objects instead of mere two-dimensional images. Methodology of rapid prototyping has also been extended into meso-/micro-/nano-scale to produce three-dimensional functional miniature components. Concurrently scheduled with course C297A. Letter grading.

184. Introduction to Geometry Modeling. (4) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, four hours. Enforced requisites: courses M20 (or Civil Engineering M20 or Computer Science 31), 94. Fundamentals in parametric curve and surface modeling, parametric spaces, blending functions, conics, splines and Bezier curve, coordinate transformations, algebraic and geometric form of surfaces, analytical properties of curve and surface, hands-on experience with CAD/CAM systems design and implementation. Letter grading.

185. Introduction to Radio Frequency Identification and Its Application in Manufacturing and Supply Chain. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisite: course M20 or Civil Engineering M20 or Computer Science 31. Manufacturing today requires assembling of individual components into assembled products, shipping of such products, and eventually use, maintenance, and recycling of such products. Radio frequency identification (RFID) chips installed on components, subassemblies, and assemblies of products allow them to be tracked automatically as they move and transform through manufacturing supply chain. RFID tags have memory and small CPU that allows information about product status to be written, stored, and transmitted wirelessly. Tag data can then be forwarded by reader to enterprise software by way of RFID middleware layer. Study of how RFID is being utilized in manufacturing, with focus on automotive and aerospace. Letter grading.

C186. Applied Optics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: Physics 1C. Fundamental principles of optical systems. Geometric optics and aberration theory. Diffraction and interference. Fourier optics, beam optics. Propagation of light, Snell’s law, and Huygen principle. Refraction and reflection. Plane waves, spherical waves, and image formation. Total internal reflection. Polarization, polarizers, and wave-plates. Lenses and aberrations, lens laws and formation of images, resolution and primary aberrations. Simple optical instruments, still cameras, shutters, apertures. Design of telescopes, microscope design, projection system design. Interference, Young’s slit experiment and fringe visibility, Michelson interferometer, multiple-beam interference and thin film coatings. Diffraction theory, Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, Fresnel zone plate. Fiber optics, waveguides and modes, fiber coupling, types of fiber: single and multimode. Concurrently scheduled with course C286. Letter grading.

C187L. Nanoscale Fabrication, Characterization, and Biodetection Laboratory. (4) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, three hours; outside study, seven hours. Multidisciplinary course that introduces laboratory techniques of nanoscale fabrication, characterization, and biodetection. Basic physical, chemical, and biological principles related to these techniques, top-down and bottom-up (self-assembly) nanofabrication, nanocharacterization (AEM, SEM, etc.), and optical and electrochemical biosensors. Students encouraged to create their own ideas in self-designed experiments. Concurrently scheduled with course C287L. Letter grading.

188. Special Courses in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. (2 to 4) Lecture, two to four hours; outside study, four to eight hours. Special topics in mechanical and aerospace engineering for undergraduate students taught on experimental or temporary basis, such as those taught by resident and visiting faculty members. May be repeated once for credit with topic or instructor change. P/NP or letter grading.

194. Research Group Seminars: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. (2 to 4) Seminar, two hours. Designed for undergraduate students who are part of research group. Discussion of research methods and current literature in field. Student presentation of projects in research specialty. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.

199. Directed Research in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. (2 to 8) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research or investigation under guidance of faculty mentor. Culminating paper or project required. May be repeated for credit with school approval. Individual contract required; enrollment petitions available in Office of Academic and Student Affairs. Letter grading.