# Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Graduate Courses

231A. Convective Heat Transfer Theory. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 131A, 182B. Recommended: course 250A. Conservation equations for flow of real fluids. Analysis of heat transfer in laminar and turbulent, incompressible and compressible flows. Internal and external flows; free convection. Variable wall temperature; effects of variable fluid properties. Analogies among convective transfer processes. Letter grading.

231B. Radiation Heat Transfer. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 105D. Radiative properties of materials and radiative energy transfer. Emphasis on fundamental concepts, including energy levels and electromagnetic waves as well as analytical methods for calculating radiative properties and radiation transfer in absorbing, emitting, and scattering media. Applications cover laser-material interactions in addition to traditional areas such as combustion and thermal insulation. Letter grading.

231C. Phase Change Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 131A, 150A. Two-phase flow, boiling, and condensation. Generalized constitutive equations for two-phase flow. Phenomenological theories of boiling and condensation, including forced flow effects. Letter grading.

231G. Microscopic Energy Transport. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 105D. Heat carriers (photons, electronics, phonons, molecules) and their energy characteristics, statistical properties of heat carriers, scattering and propagation of heat carriers, Boltzmann transport equations, derivation of classical laws from Boltzmann transport equations, deviation from classical laws at small scale. Letter grading.

233. Nanoscience for Energy Technologies. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Introduction to fundamental principles of energy transport, conversion, and storage at nanoscale, and recent development for these energy technologies involving nanotechnology. Focus on basics of thermal science, solid state, quantum mechanics, electromagnetics, and statistical physics. Topic discussions given for examples that connect technological application, fundamental challenge, and scientific-solution-based nanotechnology to improve device performance and energy efficiency. Letter grading.

235A. Nuclear Reactor Theory. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Underlying physics and mathematics of nuclear reactor (fission) core design. Diffusion theory, reactor kinetics, slowing down and thermalization, multigroup methods, introduction to transport theory. Letter grading.

C237. Design and Analysis of Smart Grids. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Demand response; transactive/price-based load control; home-area network, smart energy profile; advanced metering infrastructure; renewable energy integration; solar and wind generation intermittency and correction; microgrids; grid stability; energy storage and electric vehicles-simulation; monitoring; distribution and transmission grids; consumer-centric technologies; sensors, communications, and computing; wireless, wireline, and powerline communications for smart grids; grid modeling, stability, and control; frequency and voltage regulation; ancillary services; wide-area situational awareness, phasor measurements; analytical methods and tools for monitoring and control. Concurrently scheduled with course C137. Letter grading.

M237B. Fusion Plasma Physics and Analysis. (4) (Same as Electrical and Computer Engineering M287.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Fundamentals of plasmas at thermonuclear burning conditions. Fokker/Planck equation and applications to heating by neutral beams, RF, and fusion reaction products. Bremsstrahlung, synchrotron, and atomic radiation processes. Plasma surface interactions. Fluid description of burning plasma. Dynamics, stability, and control. Applications in tokamaks, tandem mirrors, and alternate concepts. Letter grading.

237D. Fusion Engineering and Design. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Fusion reactions and fuel cycles. Principles of inertial and magnetic fusion. Plasma requirements for controlled fusion. Plasma-surface interactions. Fusion reactor concepts and technological components. Analysis and design of high heat flux components, energy conversion and tritium breeding components, radiation shielding, magnets, and heating. Letter grading.

239B. Seminar: Current Topics in Transport Phenomena. (2 to 4) Seminar, two to four hours; outside study, four to eight hours. Designed for graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Lectures, discussions, student presentations, and projects in areas of current interest in transport phenomena. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

239F. Special Topics in Transport Phenomena. (2 to 4) Lecture, two to four hours; outside study, four to eight hours. Designed for graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Advanced and current study of one or more aspects of heat and mass transfer, such as turbulence, stability and transition, buoyancy effects, variational methods, and measurement techniques. May be repeated for credit with topic change. S/U grading.

239G. Special Topics in Nuclear Engineering. (2 to 4) Lecture, two to four hours; outside study, four to eight hours. Designed for graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Advanced study in areas of current interest in nuclear engineering, such as reactor safety, risk-benefit trade-offs, nuclear materials, and reactor design. May be repeated for credit with topic change. S/U grading.

239H. Special Topics in Fusion Physics, Engineering, and Technology. (2 to 4) Seminar, two to four hours; outside study, four to eight hours. Designed for graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Advanced treatment of subjects selected from research areas in fusion science and engineering, such as instabilities in burning plasmas, alternate fusion confinement concepts, inertial confinement fusion, fission-fusion hybrid systems, and fusion reactor safety. May be repeated for credit with topic change. S/U grading.

CM240. Introduction to Biomechanics. (4) (Same as Bioengineering CM240.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 101, 102, and 156A or 166A. Introduction to mechanical functions of human body; skeletal adaptations to optimize load transfer, mobility, and function. Dynamics and kinematics. Fluid mechanics applications. Heat and mass transfer. Power generation. Laboratory simulations and tests. Concurrently scheduled with course CM140. Letter grading.

CM241. Mechanics of Cells. (4) (Same as Bioengineering CM241.) Lecture, four hours. Introduction to physical structures of cell biology and physical principles that govern how they function mechanically. Review and application of continuum mechanics and statistical mechanics to develop quantitative mathematical models of structural mechanics in cells. Structure of macromolecules, polymers as entropic springs, random walks and diffusion, mechanosensitive proteins, single-molecule force-extension, DNA packing and transcriptional regulation, lipid bilayer membranes, mechanics of cytoskeleton, molecular motors, biological electricity, muscle mechanics, pattern formation. Concurrently scheduled with course CM141. Letter grading.

242. Introduction to Multiferroic Materials. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Overview of different types of multiferroic materials, including strain mediated. Basic crystal structure of single-phase multiferroics, as well as fundamental physics underlying ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. Material science description of these materials, with focus on linear and nonlinear behavior with associated mechanisms such as spin reorientation. Presentation of analytical tools necessary to predict material response ranging from constitutive relations to governing equations, including elastodynamics and Maxwell’s. Analytical and physical descriptions used to explain several devices manufactured with multiferroics, including magnetometers, memory devices, motors, and antennas. Letter grading.

250A. Foundations of Fluid Dynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 150A. Corequisite: course 182B. Development and application of fundamental principles of fluid mechanics at graduate level, with emphasis on incompressible flow. Flow kinematics, basic equations, constitutive relations, exact solutions on the Navier/Stokes equations, vorticity dynamics, decomposition of flow fields, potential flow. Letter grading.

250B. Viscous and Turbulent Flows. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 150A. Fundamental principles of fluid dynamics applied to study of fluid resistance. States of fluid motion discussed in order of advancing Reynolds number; wakes, boundary layers, instability, transition, and turbulent shear flows. Letter grading.

250C. Compressible Flows. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 150A, 150B. Effects of compressibility in viscous and inviscid flows. Steady and unsteady inviscid subsonic and supersonic flows; method of characteristics; small disturbance theories (linearized and hypersonic); shock dynamics. Letter grading.

250D. Computational Aerodynamics. (4) Lecture, eight hours. Requisites: courses 150A, 150B, 182C. Introduction to useful methods for computation of aerodynamic flow fields. Coverage of potential, Euler, and Navier/Stokes equations for subsonic to hypersonic speeds. Letter grading.

250E. Spectral Methods in Fluid Dynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisites: courses 82, 182B, 182C, 250A, 250B. Introduction to basic concepts and techniques of various spectral methods applied to solving partial differential equations. Particular emphasis on techniques of solving unsteady three-dimensional Navier/Stokes equations. Topics include spectral representation of functions, discrete Fourier transform, etc. Letter grading.

250F. Hypersonic and High-Temperature Gas Dynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Recommended requisite: course 250C. Molecular and chemical description of equilibrium and nonequilibrium hypersonic and high-temperature gas flows, chemical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics for calculation gas properties, equilibrium flows of real gases, vibrational and chemical rate processes, nonequilibrium flows of real gases, and computational fluid dynamics methods for nonequilibrium hypersonic flows. Letter grading.

C250G. Fluid Dynamics of Biological Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 103. Mechanics of aquatic locomotion; insect and bird flight aerodynamics; pulsatile flow in circulatory system; rheology of blood; transport in microcirculation; role of fluid dynamics in arterial diseases. Concurrently scheduled with course C150G. Letter grading.

250H. Numerical Methods for Incompressible Flows. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 150A, 182C. Review of equations of incompressible flow, finite difference methods and other methods of spatial approximation, time-marching schemes, numerical solution of model partial differential equations, application to Navier/Stokes equations, boundary conditions. Letter grading.

250M. Introduction to Microfluids/Nanofluids. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 150A. Introduction to fundamentals of microfluids. No-slip and slip boundary conditions. Sedimentation and diffusion in liquids. Osmotic pressure and Donnan equilibrium in fluid mixtures. Fundamentals of surface phenomena, spreading, and contact angles. Introduction to van der Waals interactions, electrical double layer, and zeta potential. Basics of non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. Letter grading.

C250P. Aircraft Propulsion Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 105A, 150A. Thermodynamic properties of gases, aircraft jet engine cycle analysis and component performance, component matching, advanced aircraft engine topics. Concurrently scheduled with course C150P. Letter grading.

C250R. Rocket Propulsion Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Enforced requisites: courses 103, 105A. Rocket propulsion concepts, including chemical rockets (liquid, gas, and solid propellants), hybrid rocket engines, electric (ion, plasma) rockets, nuclear rockets, and solar-powered vehicles. Current issues in launch vehicle technologies. Concurrently scheduled with course C150R. Letter grading.

252A. Stability of Fluid Motion. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 150A. Mechanisms by which laminar flows can become unstable and lead to turbulence of secondary motions. Linear stability theory; thermal, centrifugal, and shear instabilities; boundary layer instability. Nonlinear aspects: sufficient criteria for stability, subcritical instabilities, supercritical states, transition to turbulence. Letter grading.

252B. Turbulence. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 250A, 250B. Characteristics of turbulent flows, conservation and transport equations, statistical description of turbulent flows, scales of turbulent motion, simple turbulent flows, free-shear flows, wall-bounded flows, turbulence modeling, numerical simulations of turbulent flows, and turbulence control. Letter grading.

252C. Fluid Mechanics of Combustion Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 150A, 150B. Recommended: course 250C. Review of fluid mechanics and chemical thermodynamics applied to reactive systems, laminar diffusion flames, premixed laminar flames, stability, ignition, turbulent combustion, supersonic combustion. Letter grading.

252D. Combustion Rate Processes. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 252C. Basic concepts in chemical kinetics: molecular collisions, distribution functions and averaging, semiempirical and ab initio potential surfaces, trajectory calculations, statistical reaction rate theories. Practical examples of large-scale chain mechanisms from combustion chemistry of several elements, etc. Letter grading.

252P. Plasma and Ionized Gases. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 82, 102, 150A, 182B. Neutral and charged particle motion, magnetohydrodynamics, two-fluid plasma treatments, ion and electron diffusion, gas diffusion, Child/Langmuir law, basic plasma devices, electron emission and work function, thermal distributions, vacuum and vacuum systems, space-charge, particle collisions and ionization, plasma discharges, sheaths, and electric arcs. Letter grading.

254A. Special Topics in Aerodynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisites: courses 82, 150A, 150B, 182B, 182C. Special topics of current interest in advanced aerodynamics. Examples include transonic flow, hypersonic flow, sonic booms, and unsteady aerodynamics. Letter grading.

255A. Advanced Dynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 155, 169A. Variational principles and Lagrange equations. Kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies; procession and nutation of spinning bodies. Letter grading.

255B. Mathematical Methods in Dynamics. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 255A. Concepts of stability; state-space interpretation; stability determination by simulation, linearization, and Lyapunov direct method; the Hamiltonian as a Lyapunov function; nonautonomous systems; averaging and perturbation methods of nonlinear analysis; parametric excitation and nonlinear resonance. Application to mechanical systems. Letter grading.

M256A. Linear Elasticity. (4) (Same as Civil Engineering M230A.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 156A or 166A. Linear elastostatics. Cartesian tensors; infinitesimal strain tensor; Cauchy stress tensor; strain energy; equilibrium equations; linear constitutive relations; plane elastostatic problems, holes, corners, inclusions, cracks; three-dimensional problems of Kelvin, Boussinesq, and Cerruti. Introduction to boundary integral equation method. Letter grading.

M256B. Nonlinear Elasticity. (4) (Same as Civil Engineering M230B.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course M256A. Kinematics of deformation, material and spatial coordinates, deformation gradient tensor, nonlinear and linear strain tensors, strain displacement relations; balance laws, Cauchy and Piola stresses, Cauchy equations of motion, balance of energy, stored energy; constitutive relations, elasticity, hyperelasticity, thermoelasticity; linearization of field equations; solution of selected problems. Letter grading.

M256C. Plasticity. (4) (Same as Civil Engineering M230C.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses M256A, M256B. Classical rate-independent plasticity theory, yield functions, flow rules and thermodynamics. Classical rate-dependent viscoplasticity, Perzyna and Duvant/Lions types of viscoplasticity. Thermoplasticity and creep. Return mapping algorithms for plasticity and viscoplasticity. Finite element implementations. Letter grading.

256F. Analytical Fracture Mechanics. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course M256A. Review of modern fracture mechanics, elementary stress analyses; analytical and numerical methods for calculation of crack tip stress intensity factors; engineering applications in stiffened structures, pressure vessels, plates, and shells. Letter grading.

M257A. Elastodynamics. (4) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M224A.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses M256A, M256B. Equations of linear elasticity, Cauchy equation of motion, constitutive relations, boundary and initial conditions, principle of energy. Sources and waves in unbounded isotropic, anisotropic, and dissipative solids. Half-space problems. Guided waves in layered media. Applications to dynamic fracture, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), and mechanics of earthquakes. Letter grading.

258A. Nanomechanics and Micromechanics. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course M256A. Analytical and computational modeling methods to describe mechanics of materials at scales ranging from atomistic through microstructure or transitional and up to continuum. Discussion of atomistic simulation methods (e.g., molecular dynamics, Langevin dynamics, and kinetic Monte Carlo) and their applications at nanoscale. Developments and applications of dislocation dynamics and statistical mechanics methods in areas of nanostructure and microstructure self-organization, heterogeneous plastic deformation, material instabilities, and failure phenomena. Presentation of technical applications of these emerging modeling techniques to surfaces and interfaces, grain boundaries, dislocations and defects, surface growth, quantum dots, nanotubes, nanoclusters, thin films (e.g., optical thermal barrier coatings and ultrastrong nanolayer materials), nano-identification, smart (active) materials, nanobending and microbending, and torsion. Letter grading.

259A. Seminar: Advanced Topics in Fluid Mechanics. (4) Seminar, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Advanced study of topics in fluid mechanics, with intensive student participation involving assignments in research problems leading to term paper or oral presentation (possible help from guest lecturers). Letter grading.

259B. Seminar: Advanced Topics in Solid Mechanics. (4) Seminar, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Advanced study in various fields of solid mechanics on topics which may vary from term to term. Topics include dynamics, elasticity, plasticity, and stability of solids. Letter grading.

260. Current Topics in Mechanical Engineering. (2 to 4) Seminar, two to four hours; outside study, four to eight hours. Designed for graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Lectures, discussions, and student presentations and projects in areas of current interest in mechanical engineering. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

261A. Energy and Computational Methods in Structural Mechanics. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 156A or 166A. Review of theory of linear elasticity and reduced structural theories (rods, plates, and shells). Calculus of variations. Virtual work. Minimum and stationary variational principles. Variational approximation methods. Weighted residual methods, weak forms. Static finite element method. Isoparametric elements, beam and plate elements. Numerical quadrature. Letter grading.

261B. Finite Element Analysis for Solids and Structures. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 156A or M256A, or consent of instructor. Strongly recommended requisites: courses M168, M256B, 261A. Application of finite element method to classical and state-of-art modeling and design problems for solids and structures. Introduction of commercial mainstream finite element program — ABAQUS — and demonstration of how to use it in advanced way. Topics include review of finite element method, static and dynamic linear elasticity, finite deformation of hyperelastic materials, instability analysis, fracture, and implementation of user-defined subroutines in ABAQUS. Term projects using computers. Letter grading.

262. Mechanics of Intelligent Material Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Recommended requisite: course 166C. Constitutive relations for electro-magneto-mechanical materials. Fiber-optic sensor technology. Micro/macro analysis, including classical lamination theory, shear lag theory, concentric cylinder analysis, hexagonal models, and homogenization techniques as they apply to active materials. Active systems design, inch-worm, and bimorph. Letter grading.

263A. Kinematics of Robotic Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Recommended requisites: courses 155, 171A. Kinematical models of serial robotic manipulators, including spatial descriptions and transformations (Euler angles, Denavit-Hartenberg/DH parameters, equivalent angle vector), frame assignment procedure, direct kinematics, inverse kinematics (geometric and algebraic approaches), mechanical design topics. Letter grading.

263B. Dynamics of Robotic Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisite: course 263A. Recommended: course 255B. Dynamics models of serial and parallel robotic manipulators, including review of spatial descriptions and transformations along with direct and inverse kinematics, linear and angular velocities, Jacobian matrix (velocity and force), velocity propagation method, force propagation method, explicit formulation of Jacobian matrix, manipulator dynamics (Newton/Euler formulation, Lagrangian formulation), trajectory generation, introduction to parallel manipulators. Letter grading.

263C. Control of Robotic Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisite: course 263B. Sensors, actuators, and control schemes for robotic systems, including computed torque control, linear feedback control, impedance and force feedback control, and advanced control topics from nonlinear and adaptive control, hybrid control, nonholonomic systems, vision-based control, and perception. Letter grading.

263D. Advanced Topics in Robotics and Control. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisite: course 263C. Current and advanced topics in robotics and control, including kinematics, dynamics, control, mechanical design, advanced sensors and actuators, flexible links, manipulability, redundant manipulators, human-robot interaction, teleoperation, haptics. Letter grading.

M269A. Dynamics of Structures. (4) (Same as Civil Engineering M237A.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 169A. Principles of dynamics. Determination of normal modes and frequencies by differential and integral equation solutions. Transient and steady state response. Emphasis on derivation and solution of governing equations using matrix formulation. Letter grading.

269B. Advanced Dynamics of Structures. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course M269A. Analysis of linear and nonlinear response of structures to dynamic loadings. Stresses and deflections in structures. Structural damping and self-induced vibrations. Letter grading.

269D. Aeroelastic Effects in Structures. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course M269A. Presentation of field of aeroelasticity from unified viewpoint applicable to flight structures, suspension bridges, buildings, and other structures. Derivation of aeroelastic operators and unsteady airloads from governing variational principles. Flow induced instability and response of structural systems. Letter grading.

M270A. Linear Dynamic Systems. (4) (Same as Chemical Engineering M280A and Electrical and Computer Engineering M240A.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 171A or Electrical and Computer Engineering 141. State-space description of linear time-invariant (LTI) and time-varying (LTV) systems in continuous and discrete time. Linear algebra concepts such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors, singular values, Cayley/Hamilton theorem, Jordan form; solution of state equations; stability, controllability, observability, realizability, and minimality. Stabilization design via state feedback and observers; separation principle. Connections with transfer function techniques. Letter grading.

270B. Linear Optimal Control. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course M270A or Electrical Engineering M240A. Existence and uniqueness of solutions to linear quadratic (LQ) optimal control problems for continuous-time and discrete-time systems, finite-time and infinite-time problems; Hamiltonian systems and optimal control; algebraic and differential Riccati equations; implications of controllability, stabilizability, observability, and detectability solutions. Letter grading.

M270C. Optimal Control. (4) (Same as Chemical Engineering M280C and Electrical and Computer Engineering M240C.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 270B. Applications of variational methods, Pontryagin maximum principle, Hamilton/Jacobi/Bellman equation (dynamic programming) to optimal control of dynamic systems modeled by nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Letter grading.

C271A. Probability and Stochastic Processes in Dynamical Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisites: courses 82, 107. Probability spaces, random variables, stochastic sequences and processes, expectation, conditional expectation, Gauss/Markov sequences, and minimum variance estimator (Kalman filter) with applications. Concurrently scheduled with course C175A. Letter grading.

271B. Stochastic Estimation. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisite: course C271A. Linear and nonlinear estimation theory, orthogonal projection lemma, Bayesian filtering theory, conditional mean and risk estimators. Letter grading.

271C. Stochastic Optimal Control. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 271B. Stochastic dynamic programming, certainty equivalence principle, separation theorem, information statistics; linear-quadratic-Gaussian problem, linear-exponential-Gaussian problem. Relationship between stochastic control and robust control. Letter grading.

271D. Seminar: Special Topics in Dynamic Systems Control. (4) Seminar, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Seminar on current research topics in dynamic systems modeling, control, and applications. Topics selected from process control, differential games, nonlinear estimation, adaptive filtering, industrial and aerospace applications, etc. Letter grading.

M272A. Nonlinear Dynamic Systems. (4) (Same as Chemical Engineering M282A and Electrical and Computer Engineering M242A.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course M270A or Chemical Engineering M280A or Electrical and Computer Engineering M240A. State-space techniques for studying solutions of time-invariant and time-varying nonlinear dynamic systems with emphasis on stability. Lyapunov theory (including converse theorems), invariance, center manifold theorem, input-to-state stability and small-gain theorem. Letter grading.

273A. Robust Control System Analysis and Design. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 171A, M270A. Graduate-level introduction to analysis and design of multivariable control systems. Multivariable loop-shaping, performance requirements, model uncertainty representations, and robustness covered in detail from frequency domain perspective. Structured singular value and its application to controller synthesis. Letter grading.

275A. System Identification. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Methods for identification of dynamical systems from input/output data, with emphasis on identification of discrete-time (digital) models of sampled-data systems. Coverage of conversion to continuous-time models. Models identified include transfer functions and state-space models. Discussion of applications in mechanical and aerospace engineering, including identification of flexible structures, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, and acoustic ducts. Letter grading.

M276. Dynamic Programming. (4) (Same as Electrical and Computer Engineering M237.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Recommended requisite: Electrical and Computer Engineering 232A or 236A or 236B. Introduction to mathematical analysis of sequential decision processes. Finite horizon model in both deterministic and stochastic cases. Finite-state infinite horizon model. Methods of solution. Examples from inventory theory, finance, optimal control and estimation, Markov decision processes, combinatorial optimization, communications. Letter grading.

277. Advanced Digital Control for Mechatronic Systems. (4) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 171B, M270A. Digital signal processing and control analysis of mechatronic systems. System inversion-based digital control algorithms and robustness properties, Youla parameterization of stabilizing controllers, previewed optimal feedforward compensator, repetitive and learning control, and adaptive control. Real-time control investigation of topics to selected mechatronic systems. Letter grading.

279. Dynamics and Control of Biological Oscillations. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 107, M270A. Analysis and design of dynamical mechanisms underlying biological control systems that generate coordinated oscillations. Topics include neuronal information processing through action potentials (spike train), central pattern generator, coupled nonlinear oscillators, optimal gaits (periodic motion) for animal locomotion, and entrainment to natural oscillations via feedback control. Letter grading.

M280B. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Fabrication. (4) (Same as Bioengineering M250B and Electrical and Computer Engineering M250B.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisite: course M183B. Advanced discussion of micromachining processes used to construct MEMS. Coverage of many lithographic, deposition, and etching processes, as well as their combination in process integration. Materials issues such as chemical resistance, corrosion, mechanical properties, and residual/intrinsic stress. Letter grading.

281. Microsciences. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 102, 103, 105D. Fundamental issues of being in microscopic world and mechanical engineering of microscale devices. Topics include scale issues, surface tension, superhydrophobic surfaces and applications, and electrowetting and applications. Letter grading.

M282. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Device Physics and Design. (4) (Same as Bioengineering M252 and Electrical and Computer Engineering M252.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Introduction to MEMS design. Design methods, design rules, sensing and actuation mechanisms, microsensors, and microactuators. Designing MEMS to be produced with both foundry and nonfoundry processes. Computer-aided design for MEMS. Design project required. Letter grading.

284. Sensors, Actuators, and Signal Processing. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Principles and performance of micro transducers. Applications of using unique properties of micro transducers for distributed and real-time control of engineering problems. Associated signal processing requirements for these applications. Letter grading.

285. Interfacial Phenomena. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 82, 103, 105A, 105D. Introduction to fundamental physical phenomena occurring at interfaces and application of their knowledge to engineering problems. Fundamental concepts of interfacial phenomena, including surface tension, surfactants, interfacial thermodynamics, interfacial forces, interfacial hydrodynamics, and dynamics of triple line. Presentation of various applications, including wetting, change of phase (boiling and condensation), forms and emulsions, microelectromechanical systems, and biological systems. Letter grading.

C286. Applied Optics. (4) Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: Physics 1C. Fundamental principles of optical systems. Geometric optics and aberration theory. Diffraction and interference. Fourier optics, beam optics. Propagation of light, Snell’s law, and Huygen principle. Refraction and reflection. Plane waves, spherical waves, and image formation. Total internal reflection. Polarization, polarizers, and wave-plates. Lenses and aberrations, lens laws and formation of images, resolution and primary aberrations. Simple optical instruments, still cameras, shutters, apertures. Design of telescopes, microscope design, projection system design. Interference, Young’s slit experiment and fringe visibility, Michelson interferometer, multiple-beam interference and thin film coatings. Diffraction theory, Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, Fresnel zone plate. Fiber optics, waveguides and modes, fiber coupling, types of fiber: single and multimode. Concurrently scheduled with course C186. Letter grading.

M287. Nanoscience and Technology. (4) (Same as Electrical and Computer Engineering M257.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Introduction to fundamentals of nanoscale science and technology. Basic physical principles, quantum mechanics, chemical bonding and nanostructures, top-down and bottom-up (self-assembly) nanofabrication; nanocharacterization; nanomaterials, nanoelectronics, and nanobiodetection technology. Introduction to new knowledge and techniques in nano areas to understand scientific principles behind nanotechnology and inspire students to create new ideas in multidisciplinary nano areas. Letter grading.

C287L. Nanoscale Fabrication, Characterization, and Biodetection Laboratory. (4) Lecture, two hours; laboratory, three hours; outside study, seven hours. Multidisciplinary course that introduces laboratory techniques of nanoscale fabrication, characterization, and biodetection. Basic physical, chemical, and biological principles related to these techniques, top-down and bottom-up (self-assembly) nanofabrication, nanocharacterization (AEM, SEM, etc.), and optical and electrochemical biosensors. Students encouraged to create their own ideas in self-designed experiments. Concurrently scheduled with course C187L. Letter grading.

288. Laser Microfabrication. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: Materials Science 104, Physics 17. Science and engineering of laser microscopic fabrication of advanced materials, including semiconductors, metals, and insulators. Topics include fundamentals in laser interactions with advanced materials, transport issues (therma, mass, chemical, carrier, etc.) in laser microfabrication, state-of-art optics and instrumentation for laser microfabrication, applications such as rapid prototyping, surface modifications (physical/chemical), micromachines for three-dimensional MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) and data storage, up-to-date research activities. Student term projects. Letter grading.

294A. Compliant Mechanism Design. (4) (Formerly numbered 294B.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: linear algebra. Advanced compliant mechanism synthesis approaches, modeling techniques, and optimization tools. Fundamentals of flexible constraint theory, principles of constraint-based design, projective geometry, screw theory kinematics, and freedom and constraint topologies. Applications: precision motion stages, general purpose flexure bearings, microstructural architectures, MEMs, optical mounts, and nanoscale positioning systems. Hands-on exercises include build-your-own flexure kits, CAD and FEA simulations, and term project. Letter grading.

295A. Radio Frequency Identification Systems: Analysis, Design, and Applications. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Designed for graduate engineering students. Examination of emerging discipline of radio frequency identification (RFID), including basics of RFID, how RFID systems function, design and analysis of RFID systems, and applications to fields such as supply chain, manufacturing, retail, and homeland security. Letter grading.

C296A. Mechanical Design for Power Transmission. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 156A or 166A. Material selection in mechanical design. Load and stress analysis. Deflection and stiffness. Failure due to static loading. Fatigue failure. Design for safety factors and reliability. Applications of failure prevention in design of power transmission shafting. Design project involving computer-aided design (CAD) and finite element analysis (FEA) modeling. Concurrently scheduled with course C156B. Letter grading.

296B. High-Temperature Mechanical Design. (4) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 156A or equivalent. Review of elasticity and continuum thermodynamics, multiaxial plasticity, flow rules, cyclic plasticity, viscoplasticity, creep, creep damage in cyclic loading. Damage mechanics: thermodynamics, ductile, creep, fatigue, and fatigue-creep interaction damage. Fracture mechanics: elastic and elastoplastic analysis, J-integral, brittle fracture, ductile fracture, fatigue and creep crack propagation. Applications in design of high-temperature components such as turbine blades, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, connecting rods. Design project involving CAD and FEM modeling. Letter grading.

C297A. Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing. (4) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, two hours; outside study, six hours. Recommended requisite: level of knowledge in manufacturing equivalent to course 183A and CAD capability. Rapid prototyping (RP), solid freeform fabrication, or additive manufacturing has emerged as popular manufacturing technology to accelerate product creation in last two decades. Machine for layered manufacturing builds parts directly from CAD models. This novel manufacturing technology enables building of parts that have traditionally been impossible to fabricate because of their complex shapes or of variety in materials. In analogy to speed and flexibility of desktop publishing, rapid prototyping is also called desktop manufacturing, with actual three-dimensional solid objects instead of mere two-dimensional images. Methodology of rapid prototyping has also been extended into meso-/micro-/nano-scale to produce three-dimensional functional miniature components. Concurrently scheduled with course C183C. Letter grading.

M297B. Material Processing in Manufacturing. (4) (Formerly numbered 297A.) (Same as Materials Science M297B.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Enforced requisite: course 183A. Thermodynamics, principles of material processing: phase equilibria and transitions, transport mechanisms of heat and mass, nucleation and growth of microstructure. Applications in casting/solidification, welding, consolidation, chemical vapor deposition, infiltration, composites. Letter grading.

M297C. Composites Manufacturing. (4) (Formerly numbered 297D.) (Same as Materials Science M297C.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: course 166C, Materials Science 151. Matrix materials, fibers, fiber preforms, elements of processing, autoclave/compression molding, filament winding, pultrusion, resin transfer molding, automation, material removal and assembly, metal and ceramic matrix composites, quality assurance. Letter grading.

298. Seminar: Engineering. (2 to 4) Seminar, to be arranged. Limited to graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Seminars may be organized in advanced technical fields. If appropriate, field trips may be arranged. May be repeated with topic change. Letter grading.

M299A. Seminar: Systems, Dynamics, and Control Topics. (2) (Same as Chemical Engineering M297 and Electrical and Computer Engineering M248S.) Seminar, two hours; outside study, six hours. Limited to graduate engineering students. Presentations of research topics by leading academic researchers from fields of systems, dynamics, and control. Students who work in these fields present their papers and results. S/U grading.

375. Teaching Apprentice Practicum. (1 to 4) Seminar, to be arranged. Preparation: apprentice personnel employment as teaching assistant, associate, or fellow. Teaching apprenticeship under active guidance and supervision of regular faculty member responsible for curriculum and instruction at UCLA. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

495. Teaching Assistant Training Seminar. (2) Seminar, two hours; outside study, four hours. Preparation: appointment as teaching assistant in department. Seminar on communication of mechanical and aerospace engineering principles, concepts, and methods; teaching assistant preparation, organization, and presentation of material, including use of visual aids; grading, advising, and rapport with students. S/U grading.

596. Directed Individual or Tutorial Studies. (2 to 8) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Petition forms to request enrollment may be obtained from assistant dean, Graduate Studies. Supervised investigation of advanced technical problems. S/U grading.

597A. Preparation for MS Comprehensive Examination. (2 to 12) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Reading and preparation for MS comprehensive examination. S/U grading.

597B. Preparation for PhD Preliminary Examinations. (2 to 16) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. S/U grading.

597C. Preparation for PhD Oral Qualifying Examination. (2 to 16) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Preparation for oral qualifying examination, including preliminary research on dissertation. S/U grading.

598. Research for and Preparation of MS Thesis. (2 to 12) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Supervised independent research for MS candidates, including thesis prospectus. S/U grading.

599. Research for and Preparation of PhD Dissertation. (2 to 16) Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate mechanical and aerospace engineering students. Usually taken after students have been advanced to candidacy. S/U grading.